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December 30, 2012, at 09:20 PM by 101.63.232.223 -
Deleted line 2075:
Added lines 2080-2097:

!!!Scan for any DHCP server on your network

[@

fedora@fedora ~> sudo nmap -sU 192.168.56.0-255 -p 67-68

Starting Nmap 6.01 ( http://nmap.org ) at 2012-12-31 07:47 IST
Nmap scan report for 192.168.56.104
Host is up (0.00044s latency).
PORT STATE SERVICE
67/udp closed dhcps
68/udp closed dhcpc

Nmap done: 256 IP addresses (1 host up) scanned in 11.72 seconds
fedora@fedora ~>
@]
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'''Kernel Recompile Example Steps'''

* Examples Kernle recompiel with GRSEC.
[@
[root@delhi ~]# finger @finger.kernel.org
The latest stable version of the Linux kernel is: 2.6.22.9
The latest prepatch for the stable Linux kernel tree is: 2.6.23-rc9
The latest snapshot for the stable Linux kernel tree is: 2.6.23-rc9-git2
The latest 2.4 version of the Linux kernel is: 2.4.35.3
The latest prepatch for the 2.4 Linux kernel tree is: 2.4.36-pre1
The latest 2.2 version of the Linux kernel is: 2.2.26
The latest prepatch for the 2.2 Linux kernel tree is: 2.2.27-rc2
The latest -mm patch to the stable Linux kernels is: 2.6.23-rc8-mm2
[root@delhi ~]



#!/bin/bash
cd /usr/src
wget http://kernel.org/pub/linux/kernel/v2.6/linux-2.6.19.2.tar.gz
wget http://www.grsecurity.net/grsecurity-2.1.10-2.6.19.2-200701222307.patch.gz
tar -xvzf linux-2.6.19.2.tar.gz
gunzip < grsecurity-2.1.10-2.6.19.2-200701222307.patch.gz | patch -p0
mv linux-2.6.19.2 linux-2.6.19.2-grsec
ln -s linux-2.6.19.2-grsec linux
cd linux
cp /boot/config-`uname -r` .config
ls -al |grep .config
sleep 10
make menuconfig
sleep 10
make bzImage
sleep 10
make modules
sleep 10
make modules_install
sleep 10
make install
vi /boot/grub/grub.conf




#!/bin/bash
cd /usr/src
wget http://kernel.org/pub/linux/kernel/v2.6/linux-2.6.17.11.tar.bz2
wget http://grsecurity.org/grsecurity-2.1.9-2.6.17.11-200608282236.patch.gz
tar -xjvf linux-2.6.17.11.tar.bz2
gunzip < grsecurity-2.1.9-2.6.17.11-200608282236.patch.gz | patch -p0
mv linux-2.6.17.11 linux-2.6.17.11-grsec
ln -s linux-2.6.17.11-grsec linux
cd linux
cp /boot/config-`uname -r` .config
ls -al |grep .config
sleep 10
make menuconfig
sleep 10
make bzImage
sleep 10
make modules
sleep 10
make modules_install
sleep 10
make install

@]
Added lines 3-4:

%blue%'''You must be the change you wish to see in the world'''. - Mahatma Gandhi
Deleted lines 5-7:

%blue%'''You must be the change you wish to see in the world'''. - Mahatma Gandhi
Added lines 4-6:

%blue%'''You must be the change you wish to see in the world'''. - Mahatma Gandhi
December 13, 2012, at 11:04 AM by 115.242.234.138 -
Added lines 1985-2087:

!!Setting up your first LAMP server on Ubuntu.

You can use apt-get to install these packages by running the following commands:
[@
sudo apt-get install apache2
sudo apt-get install php5
sudo apt-get install php5-cli
sudo apt-get install php5-cgi
sudo apt-get install php5-mysql
sudo apt-get install php5-pgsql
sudo apt-get install libapache2-mod-php5
sudo apt-get install build-essential
sudo apt-get install mysql-server
sudo apt-get install mysql-doc-5.0
@]
!!Linux Kernel recompilation with GRSECURITY
To recompile the Linux kernel, Upgrade to at *least* these software revisions before thinking you've encountered a bug! If you're unsure what version you're currently running, the suggested command should tell you.

Grsecurity is an innovative approach to security utilizing a multi-layered detection, prevention, and containment model.

It is licensed under the GPL. more details at [[Linux-Kernel-recompilation-with-GRSECURITY]]
!!iptables linux firewall for home office networks.
The below example has the follwoing settings.
[@
# Internet Interface
INET_IFACE="ppp0"
# Local Interface Information
LOCAL_IFACE="eth0"
LOCAL_IP="192.168.1.1"
LOCAL_NET="192.168.1.0/24"
LOCAL_BCAST="192.168.1.255"
@]

More - [[iptables-linux-firewall-for-home-office-networks]]


!!Requirements for Nagios Notifications.
If you want to receive email notifications for Nagios alerts, you need to install the mailx (Postfix) package.
[@
sudo apt-get install mailx
sudo apt-get install postfix
@]
Edit the /usr/local/nagios/etc/objects/contacts.cfg config file with your favorite editor and change the email address associated with the nagiosadmin contact definition to the address you'd like to use for receiving alerts. You'll have to edit the Nagios email notification commands found in /usr/local/nagios/etc/objects/commands.cfg and change any '/bin/mail' references to '/usr/bin/mail'. Once you do that you'll need to restart Nagios to make the configuration changes live.

[[Requirements-for-Nagios-Notifications]]

!!Planning your Linux partition structure.
For a less simple partition structure:
[@
/boot 60-100 meg
swap 2 x memory
/tmp 1 Gig. mount /tmp with noexec,nosuid in /etc/fstab
/ 6-10 Gig
/var 8-20 gig. Emails, logs and databases stored here
/usr 5-12 gig. source code
/home rest of drive. Roughly 80% for user data.
/home Mount with nosuid in /etc/fstab if possible.
@]
Feel free to modify these numbers as needed. Note, if you plan on installing dovecot, all email data is stored under /home and not /var, so adjust as needed. Also FreeBSD store mysql databases in /home/mysql/.
Please have Basic development/compiling tools such as gcc, g++, and perl.
!!Working with LVM Logical Volume Manager
*Creating hard drive space into logical volumes.
*Since physical volumes cannot span over more than one drives.
*/boot partition cannot be a lvm because the partition cannot be read by the boot loader
*/boot should be on a separate partitions. - ext3
*lvm2 uses the device mapper driver in the kernel 2.6
*First create PV -physical volume, then create volume group-VG, and then the logical volume-LV.

More - [[LVM-Logical-Volume-Manager]]

!!How to verify signature of downloaded source file with GPG
Here downloaded file is postfix-2.6.5.tar.gz and the signature is postfix-2.6.5.tar.gz.sig
[@
$ gpg --verify postfix-2.6.5.tar.gz.sig postfix-2.6.5.tar.gz
gpg: Signature made Sat Aug 29 00:50:08 2009 UTC using RSA key ID C12BCD99
gpg: Good signature from "Wietse Venema <wietse@porcupine.org>"
gpg: WARNING: This key is not certified with a trusted signature!
gpg: There is no indication that the signature belongs to the owner.
Primary key fingerprint: FF 96 4A 8C 96 88 7C 6E A4 EF AD BF 48 34 E1 BB
@]
More - [[how-to-verify-signature-of-downloaded-source-file-with-gpg]]

!!namp scan techniques host discovery version detection and much more
[@
ubuntu@mail:~$ man -k nmap
nmap (1) - Network exploration tool and security / port scanner


Nmap 4.53 ( http://insecure.org )
Usage: nmap [Scan Type(s)] [Options] {target specification}
@]
More -[[namp-scan-techniques-host-discovery-version-detection-and-much-more]]
!!Using perl to make changes to a list of files.
Example below add comment to all the virtual host conf file in apache.
[@
perl -pi -e 's/Error/#Error/' virtual_host*.conf

perl -pi -e 's/ssl=ON/ssl=OFF/' /usr/local/directadmin/data/users/*/domains/*.conf
@]
!!CentOS 5.4 rpms list download page.

http://mirrors.kernel.org/centos/5.4/os/i386/CentOS/
December 10, 2012, at 07:45 AM by 115.242.237.108 -
Added lines 1893-1983:
@]

!!Hardcopy record of an inter‐active session
----

script makes a typescript of everything printed on your terminal.
It is useful for students who need a hardcopy record of an inter‐active session
as proof of an assignment, as the typescript file can be printed out later.

[@
Usage:
script [options] [file]

Options:
-a, --append append the output
-c, --command <command> run command rather than interactive shell
-r, --return return exit code of the child process
-f, --flush run flush after each write
--force use output file even when it is a link
-q, --quiet be quiet
-t, --timing[=<file>] output timing data to stderr (or to FILE)
-V, --version output version information and exit
-h, --help display this help and exit
@]

!!Starting Recording

'''script -t 2> record.timing -a record.session'''

'''Example:'''

[@
fedora@fedora ~> script -t 2> record.timing -a record.session
Script started, file is record.session

fedora@fedora ~> uptime
18:08:47 up 3 days, 4:43, 5 users, load average: 0.32, 0.25, 0.21

fedora@fedora ~> last |head
fedora pts/7 Mon Dec 10 18:08 still logged in
fedora pts/6 :0 Mon Dec 10 18:00 still logged in
fedora pts/5 :0 Mon Dec 10 17:56 still logged in
fedora pts/6 :0 Mon Dec 10 13:41 - 16:04 (02:22)
fedora pts/5 :0 Mon Dec 10 08:26 - 16:04 (07:37)
fedora pts/2 :0 Mon Dec 10 08:25 still logged in
fedora pts/7 :0 Sun Dec 9 14:25 - 17:12 (02:46)
fedora pts/6 :0 Sun Dec 9 13:32 - 17:11 (03:39)
fedora pts/5 :0 Sun Dec 9 11:50 - 17:11 (05:20)
fedora pts/2 :0 Sun Dec 9 11:33 - 17:12 (05:38)
fedora@fedora ~> exit
exit
Script done, file is record.session
fedora@fedora ~>

@]

!!Replay Recording

'''scriptreplay record.timing record.session'''

[@
fedora@fedora ~> scriptreplay record.timing record.session

fedora@fedora ~> uptime
18:08:47 up 3 days, 4:43, 5 users, load average: 0.32, 0.25, 0.21

fedora@fedora ~> last |head
fedora pts/7 Mon Dec 10 18:08 still logged in
fedora pts/6 :0 Mon Dec 10 18:00 still logged in
fedora pts/5 :0 Mon Dec 10 17:56 still logged in
fedora pts/6 :0 Mon Dec 10 13:41 - 16:04 (02:22)
fedora pts/5 :0 Mon Dec 10 08:26 - 16:04 (07:37)
fedora pts/2 :0 Mon Dec 10 08:25 still logged in
fedora pts/7 :0 Sun Dec 9 14:25 - 17:12 (02:46)
fedora pts/6 :0 Sun Dec 9 13:32 - 17:11 (03:39)
fedora pts/5 :0 Sun Dec 9 11:50 - 17:11 (05:20)
fedora pts/2 :0 Sun Dec 9 11:33 - 17:12 (05:38)
fedora@fedora ~> exit
@]

'''fedora@fedora ~> scriptreplay -h'''
[@
Usage:
scriptreplay [-t] timingfile [typescript] [divisor]

Options:
-t, --timing <file> script timing output file
-s, --typescript <file> script terminal session output file
-d, --divisor <num> speed up or slow down execution with time divisor
-V, --version output version information and exit
-h, --help display this help and exit
December 10, 2012, at 03:37 AM by 115.242.237.108 -
Added lines 1761-1762:
!!!Example how to collect the TOP command information from later days.
Deleted lines 1763-1764:

### RECORD 1 >>> fedora <<< (1354999980.002) (Sun Dec 9 02:23:00 2012) ###
Added lines 1765-1766:

### RECORD 1 >>> fedora <<< (1354999980.002) (Sun Dec 9 02:23:00 2012) ###
Added line 1782:
Changed line 1785 from:
'''Path'''
to:
'''Files under /var/log/collectl'''
Changed line 1860 from:
-w, --wide print wide field contents (don't use K/M/G)
to:
-w, --wide print wide field contents (don't use K/M/G)
December 10, 2012, at 03:34 AM by 115.242.237.108 -
Added lines 1747-1890:
!!collectl - Collects data that describes the current system status.
----

'''SYNOPSIS'''
[@
Record Mode - read data from live system and write to file or display on terminal

collectl [-f file] [options]

Playback Mode - read data from one or more raw data files and display on terminal

collectl -p file1 [file2 ...] [options
@]

'''[root@fedora collectl]# collectl -p fedora-20121209-000000.raw.gz --top --from 02:22 --thru 02:23'''

### RECORD 1 >>> fedora <<< (1354999980.002) (Sun Dec 9 02:23:00 2012) ###
[@
# TOP PROCESSES sorted by time (counters are /sec) 02:23:00
# PID User PR PPID THRD S VSZ RSS CP SysT UsrT Pct AccuTime RKB WKB MajF MinF Command
4918 fedora 20 4361 29 S 755M 243M 0 0.22 0.97 1 01:30:22 0 0 0 2 ./firefox
9394 root 20 1 0 R 17M 12M 0 0.07 0.55 1 17:28.32 0 0 0 0 /usr/bin/pe
1883 root 35 1 0 S 8M 5M 0 0.10 0.18 0 09:00.50 0 0 0 32 /usr/sbin/p
1867 root 20 1818 0 S 23M 10M 0 0.07 0.03 0 41:05.32 0 0 0 0 /usr/bin/X
18085 root 20 18084 0 S 11M 1M 0 0.04 0.04 0 01:38.62 0 0 0 0 wvdial
6282 root 20 2 0 S 0 0 0 0.02 0.00 0 00:00.05 0 0 0 0 kworker/0:0
1809 root 20 1 0 S 3M 1M 0 0.00 0.01 0 00:13.05 0 0 0 0 /usr/lib/sy
1831 dbus 20 1 0 S 3M 1M 0 0.00 0.01 0 00:20.80 0 0 0 0 /bin/dbus-d
1835 root 20 1 0 S 5M 892K 0 0.00 0.01 0 00:03.43 0 0 0 0 /usr/sbin/c
2607 root 20 1 63 S 20M 1M 0 0.00 0.01 0 00:07.89 0 0 0 0 /usr/sbin/c
@]

'''[root@fedora collectl]# pwd'''
/var/log/collectl

'''Path'''
[@
[root@fedora collectl]# ls
fedora-20121207-220643.raw.gz fedora-20121209-000000.raw.gz fedora-collectl-201212.log
fedora-20121208-000000.raw.gz fedora-20121210-000000.raw.gz
@]

'''Help'''

'''[root@fedora collectl]# collectl -x'''
[@
This is the complete list of switches, more details in man page

--align align on time boundary
--all selects 'all' summary subsystems except slabs,
which means NO detail or process data either
note: the opposite of --all is -s-all
-A, --address addr[:port[:time]] open a socket/port on addr with optional
timeout OR run as a server with no timeout
--comment string add the string to the end of the header
-C, --config file use alternate collectl.conf file
-c, --count count collect this number of samples and exit
-d, --debug debug see source for details or try -d1 to get started
-D, --daemon run as a daemon
--extract file extract a subset of a raw file into another one
-f, --filename file name of directory/file to write to
-F, --flush seconds number of seconds between output buffer flushes
--from time time from which to playback data, -thru optional
[yyyymmdd:]hh:mm[:ss][-[yyyymmdd:]hh:mm[:ss]]
--grep pattern print timestamped entries in raw file for each
occurance of pattern
-G, --group write process/slab data to separate, rawp file
-h, --help print basic help
--home move cursor to top before printing interval data
--hr,--headerrepeat num repeat headers every 'num' lines, once or never
--import file name of file(s) to use for data importation
-i, --interval int[:pi:ei]] collection interval in seconds
[defaults: interactive=1, daemon=10]
pi is process interval [default=60]
ei is environmental interval [default=300]
--iosize include I/O sizes as appropriate in brief format
-l, --limits limits override default exceptions name:val[-name:val]
-m, --messages write messages to log file and/or terminal
-N, --nice give yourself a 'nicer' priority
--nohup do not exit if the process that started collectl exits
--offsettime secs seconds by which to offset times during playback
-o, --options misc formatting options, --showoptions for all
-p, --playback file playback results from 'file'
--passwd file use this instead if /etc/passwd for UID->name
--pname name set process name to 'collectl-pname'
-P, --plot generate output in 'plot' format
--procanalyze analyze process data, generating prcs file
--quiet do note echo warning messages on the terminal
-r, --rolllogs time,d,m roll logs at 'time', retaining for 'd' days,
every 'm' minutes [default: d=7,m=1440]
--rawtoo when run with -P, this tell collectl to also
create a raw log file as well
--runas uid[:gui] collectl will change its uid/gid in daemon mode
see man page for details
-R, --runtime duration time to run in <number><units> format
where unit is w,d,h,m,s
--sep separator specify an alternate plot format separator
--slabanalyze analyze slab data, generating slbs file
--stats same as -oA
-s, --subsys subsys record/playback data from one or more subsystems
--showsubsys for details
--sumstat same as --stats but only summary
--thru time time thru which to playback data (see --from)
--top [type][,num] show top 'num' processes sorted by type
--showtopopts for details
--tworaw synonym for -G and -group, which are now deprecated
--umask mask set output file permissions mask (see man umask)
--utime mask write diagnostic micro timestamps into raw file
--verbose display output in verbose format (automatically
selected when brief doesn't make sense)
-w, --wide print wide field contents (don't use K/M/G)

Synonyms
--utc = -oU

These are Alternate Display Formats
--vmstat show output similar to vmstat

Logging options
--rawtoo used with -P, write raw data to a log as well
--export name[,options] write data to an exported socket/file

Various types of help
-h, --help print this text
-v, --version print version
-V, --showdefs print operational defaults
-x, --helpext extended help
-X, --helpall shows all help concatenated together

--showoptions show all the options
--showsubopts show all substem specific options
--showsubsys show all the subsystems
--showtopopts show --top options

--showheader show file header that 'would be' generated
--showcolheaders show column headers that 'would be' generated
--showslabaliases for SLUB allocator, show non-root aliases
--showrootslabs same as --showslabaliases but use 'root' names
--whatsnew show summary of recent version new features

Copyright 2003-2012 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P.
collectl may be copied only under the terms of either the Artistic License
or the GNU General Public License, which may be found in the source kit
@]
December 09, 2012, at 10:06 PM by 101.63.175.220 -
Changed line 490 from:
Static IP Configuration on RHEL, Fedora, CentOS Linux
to:
!!Static IP Configuration on RHEL, Fedora, CentOS Linux
December 09, 2012, at 10:05 PM by 101.63.175.220 -
Changed line 69 from:
!!!CentOS - Hostname Change
to:
!!!Hostname Change RHEL, CentOS, Fedora
Added lines 490-549:
Static IP Configuration on RHEL, Fedora, CentOS Linux
----
1. '''Edit /etc/sysconfig/network, add network gateway and hostname '''

2. '''Edit /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0'''

3. '''Example interface which is autoconfigured using Graphic Tools'''
[@
fedora@fedora ~> cat /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-Auto_Ethernet
TYPE=Ethernet
BOOTPROTO=none
DEFROUTE=yes
IPV4_FAILURE_FATAL=no
IPV6INIT=yes
IPV6_AUTOCONF=yes
IPV6_DEFROUTE=yes
IPV6_FAILURE_FATAL=no
NAME="Auto Ethernet"
UUID=d36649d6-b53a-4cf6-9c1f-20b7e7f72a2e
ONBOOT=yes
IPADDR0=192.168.56.104
PREFIX0=24
DNS1=8.8.8.8
HWADDR=00:08:74:22:5C:61
IPV6_PEERDNS=yes
IPV6_PEERROUTES=yes
IPV6_PRIVACY=rfc3041
fedora@fedora ~>
@]

4. '''Manually adding IP address'''

[@
DEVICE=eth0
BOOTPROTO=static
HWADDR=00:08:74:22:5C:61
IPADDR=192.168.56.104
NETMASK=255.255.255.0
ONBOOT=yes
@]

5. '''Edit /etc/resolv.conf and setup DNS servers'''

[@
fedora@fedora ~> cat /etc/resolv.conf
#Google DNS
nameserver 8.8.8.8
nameserver 8.8.4.4
#OpenDNS
nameserver 208.67.222.222
nameserver 208.67.220.220
#Reliance DNS
nameserver 220.226.6.104
nameserver 220.226.100.40
#
@]

6. '''Restart network - /etc/init.d/network restart'''

7. '''For ubuntu - Edit /etc/network/interfaces'''
December 09, 2012, at 06:36 AM by 101.63.171.227 -
Changed lines 45-46 from:
'''List of available services already configured'''.
to:
'''List of available services already configured'''
Added line 50:
December 09, 2012, at 06:30 AM by 101.63.171.227 -
Added lines 232-283:


'''[root@fedora ~]# systemctl show-environment'''
[@
SYSFONT=True
PATH=/usr/local/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin
PWD=/
LANG=en_US.UTF-8
KEYTABLE=us
SHLVL=0
BOOT_IMAGE=/vmlinuz-3.3.4-5.fc17.i686
@]

'''[root@fedora ~]# man systemctl'''

'''[root@fedora ~]# man systemd'''

'''[root@fedora ~]# systemctl show'''
[@
Version=systemd 44
Distribution=fedora
Features=+PAM +LIBWRAP +AUDIT +SELINUX +SYSVINIT +LIBCRYPTSETUP
RunningAs=system
InitRDTimestamp=Fri, 07 Dec 2012 13:25:01 +0530
InitRDTimestampMonotonic=2229913
StartupTimestamp=Fri, 07 Dec 2012 13:25:10 +0530
StartupTimestampMonotonic=10473483
FinishTimestamp=Fri, 07 Dec 2012 13:25:43 +0530
FinishTimestampMonotonic=44368055
LogLevel=info
LogTarget=journal-or-kmsg
NNames=260
NJobs=0
NInstalledJobs=123
NFailedJobs=0
Progress=1
Environment=SYSFONT=True PATH=/usr/local/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin
PWD=/ LANG=en_US.UTF-8 KEYTABLE=us SHLVL=0 BOOT_IMAGE=/vmlinuz-
ConfirmSpawn=no
ShowStatus=no
UnitPath=/etc/systemd/system /usr/lib/systemd/system
NotifySocket=/run/systemd/notify
ControlGroupHierarchy=/system
MountAuto=yes
SwapAuto=yes
DefaultControllers=cpu
DefaultStandardOutput=journal
DefaultStandardError=inherit
SysVConsole=no
SysVInitPath=/etc/rc.d/init.d
SysVRcndPath=/etc/rc.d
@]
December 09, 2012, at 06:25 AM by 101.63.171.227 -
Changed lines 208-209 from:
'''Starting service using systemctl.
to:
'''Starting service using systemctl'''.
December 09, 2012, at 06:23 AM by 101.63.171.227 -
Changed line 232 from:
Unit Commands:
to:
'''Unit Commands''':
Changed line 295 from:
Manager Lifecycle Commands:
to:
'''Manager Lifecycle Commands''':
Changed line 301 from:
System Commands:
to:
'''System Commands''':
December 09, 2012, at 06:15 AM by 101.63.171.227 -
Added lines 207-310:
@]
'''Starting service using systemctl.
[root@fedora ~]# systemctl restart ntpdate.service

'''Check Status after start'''
[@
[root@fedora ~]# systemctl status ntpdate.service
ntpdate.service - Set time via NTP
Loaded: loaded (/usr/lib/systemd/system/ntpdate.service; disabled)
Active: active (exited) since Sun, 09 Dec 2012 16:34:41 +0530; 5s ago
Process: 22774 ExecStart=/usr/libexec/ntpdate-wrapper (code=exited, status=0/SUCCESS)
CGroup: name=systemd:/system/ntpdate.service
Dec 09 16:34:41 fedora.example.com ntpdate[22780]: step time server 66.207.226.14 offset
@]
'''Enable'''
[@
[root@fedora ~]# systemctl enable ntpdate.service
ln -s '/usr/lib/systemd/system/ntpdate.service'
'/etc/systemd/system/multi-user.target.wants/ntpdate.service'
@]

!!systemctl - Control the systemd system and service manager
'''systemctl [OPTIONS...] {COMMAND} ...'''
----

Unit Commands:
[@
list-units List loaded units
start [NAME...] Start (activate) one or more units
stop [NAME...] Stop (deactivate) one or more units
reload [NAME...] Reload one or more units
restart [NAME...] Start or restart one or more units
try-restart [NAME...] Restart one or more units if active
reload-or-restart [NAME...] Reload one or more units is possible,
otherwise start or restart
reload-or-try-restart [NAME...] Reload one or more units is possible,
otherwise restart if active
isolate [NAME] Start one unit and stop all others
kill [NAME...] Send signal to processes of a unit
is-active [NAME...] Check whether units are active
status [NAME...|PID...] Show runtime status of one or more units
show [NAME...|JOB...] Show properties of one or more
units/jobs or the manager
reset-failed [NAME...] Reset failed state for all, one, or more
units
load [NAME...] Load one or more units
@]

'''Unit File Commands''':
[@
list-unit-files List installed unit files
enable [NAME...] Enable one or more unit files
disable [NAME...] Disable one or more unit files
reenable [NAME...] Reenable one or more unit files
preset [NAME...] Enable/disable one or more unit files
based on preset configuration
mask [NAME...] Mask one or more units
unmask [NAME...] Unmask one or more units
link [PATH...] Link one or more units files into
the search path
is-enabled [NAME...] Check whether unit files are enabled
@]

'''Job Commands''':
[@
list-jobs List jobs
cancel [JOB...] Cancel all, one, or more jobs
@]

'''Status Commands''':
[@
dump Dump server status
dot Dump dependency graph for dot(1)
@]

'''Snapshot Commands:'''
[@
snapshot [NAME] Create a snapshot
delete [NAME...] Remove one or more snapshots
@]

'''Environment Commands:'''
[@
show-environment Dump environment
set-environment [NAME=VALUE...] Set one or more environment variables
unset-environment [NAME...] Unset one or more environment variables
@]

Manager Lifecycle Commands:
[@
daemon-reload Reload systemd manager configuration
daemon-reexec Reexecute systemd manager
@]

System Commands:
[@
default Enter system default mode
rescue Enter system rescue mode
emergency Enter system emergency mode
halt Shut down and halt the system
poweroff Shut down and power-off the system
reboot Shut down and reboot the system
kexec Shut down and reboot the system with kexec
exit Ask for user instance termination
December 09, 2012, at 06:03 AM by 101.63.171.227 -
Changed lines 30-31 from:
!!!Red Hat as well as most of its derivatives (such as CentOS) uses runlevels like this:
to:
'''Red Hat as well as most of its derivatives (such as CentOS) uses runlevels like this:'''
Changed line 45 from:
!!!List of available services already configured.
to:
'''List of available services already configured'''.
Changed line 48 from:
!!!Make a service start for normal usage
to:
'''Make a service start for normal usage'''
Changed line 51 from:
!!!If you have this init file listed in /etc/init.d/ you only need to run two commands to get it running at boot
to:
'''If you have this init file listed in /etc/init.d/ you only need to run two commands to get it running at boot'''
Changed line 57 from:
!!!Use chkconfig to configure the programs that will be started at boot in a runlevel.
to:
'''Use chkconfig to configure the programs that will be started at boot in a runlevel'''.
Changed line 67 from:
!!CentOS - Hostname Change
to:
!!!CentOS - Hostname Change
Changed lines 69-70 from:
Open the /etc/sysconfig/network file with your favorite text editor.
to:
Open the '''/etc/sysconfig/network''' file with your favorite text editor.
Changed line 79 from:
this is for internal networking (found at /etc/hosts):
to:
this is for internal networking (found at '''/etc/hosts'''):
December 09, 2012, at 06:00 AM by 101.63.171.227 -
Added lines 175-205:

@]

!!!Network Time Protocol Setup
----

'''Check whether the selected NTP server is accessible:'''

'''[root@fedora ~]# ntpdate -q 0.rhel.pool.ntp.org'''
[@
server 204.9.136.253, stratum 2, offset -0.008663, delay 0.34778
server 169.229.70.201, stratum 2, offset -0.033543, delay 0.34413
server 184.22.183.130, stratum 2, offset -0.011112, delay 0.36876
server 108.61.73.244, stratum 2, offset -0.021635, delay 0.33836
9 Dec 16:25:18 ntpdate[22704]: adjust time server 108.61.73.244 offset -0.021635 sec
@]

'''Run the ntpdate command followed by one or more server addresses:'''
[@
[root@fedora ~]# ntpdate 0.rhel.pool.ntp.org 1.rhel.pool.ntp.org
9 Dec 16:26:41 ntpdate[22710]: adjust time server 108.61.73.244 offset -0.024647 sec
@]

'''Checking satus via systemctl command'''

'''[root@fedora ~]# systemctl status ntpdate.service'''
[@
ntpdate.service - Set time via NTP
Loaded: loaded (/usr/lib/systemd/system/ntpdate.service; disabled)
Active: inactive (dead)
CGroup: name=systemd:/system/ntpdate.service
December 09, 2012, at 05:45 AM by 101.63.171.227 -
Changed lines 43-44 from:
to:
!!Services
----
Changed lines 57-61 from:
!!CentOS - Hostname Change

!!!Open
the /etc/sysconfig/network file with your favorite text editor.

!!!Modify the HOSTNAME= value to match your FQDN host name
.
to:
!!!Use chkconfig to configure the programs that will be started at boot in a runlevel.
Changed lines 59-61 from:
sudo nano /etc/sysconfig/network

HOSTNAME=myserver.domain.com
to:

# chkconfig --list # List all init scripts
# chkconfig --list sshd # Report the status of sshd
# chkconfig sshd --level 35 on # Configure sshd for levels 3 and 5
# chkconfig sshd off # Disable sshd for all runlevels
Changed lines 67-74 from:
Change the host that is associated to your main IPaddress for your server,
this is for internal networking (found at /etc/hosts):

!!!Restart Networking

/etc/init.d/network restart

!!!General Package Installation Guidelines APT/Dpkg (Debian, Ubuntu)
to:
!!CentOS - Hostname Change
Added lines 69-71:
Open the /etc/sysconfig/network file with your favorite text editor.

Modify the HOSTNAME= value to match your FQDN host name.
Added lines 73-87:
sudo nano /etc/sysconfig/network

HOSTNAME=myserver.domain.com
@]

Change the host that is associated to your main IPaddress for your server.
this is for internal networking (found at /etc/hosts):

'''Restart Networking'''

/etc/init.d/network restart

!!!General Package Installation Guidelines APT/Dpkg (Debian, Ubuntu)
----
[@
Changed line 178 from:
!!!Running kernel and system
to:
!!!Running kernel and system information.
Deleted line 196:
Deleted line 251:
Changed lines 259-261 from:
!!!Services

!!!Use chkconfig to configure the programs that will be started at boot in a runlevel
.
to:
!!Network Management
----
!!!Temporary IP Address Assignment

To temporarily configure an IP address, you can use the ifconfig command in the following manner
.

Just modify the IP address and subnet mask to match your network requirements.
Changed lines 269-274 from:

# chkconfig --list # List all init scripts
# chkconfig --list sshd # Report the status of sshd
# chkconfig sshd --level 35 on # Configure sshd for levels 3 and 5
# chkconfig sshd off # Disable sshd for all runlevels
to:
sudo ifconfig eth0 10.0.0.100 netmask 255.255.255.0
Changed lines 271-276 from:
!!!Temporary IP Address Assignment

To temporarily configure an IP address, you can use the ifconfig command in the following manner.

Just modify the IP address and subnet mask to match your network requirements.
to:
!!![root@fedora ~]# ifconfig -a em1
Deleted lines 273-277:
sudo ifconfig eth0 10.0.0.100 netmask 255.255.255.0
@]

!!![root@fedora ~]# ifconfig -a em1
[@
Changed lines 284-285 from:
!!!To configure a default gateway, you can use the route command in the following manner.
to:
To configure a default gateway, you can use the route command in the following manner.
Added line 295:
Changed lines 301-302 from:
!!Static IP Address Assignment in Ubuntu
to:
!!!Static IP Address Assignment in Ubuntu
----
Changed line 314 from:
to:
----
Changed line 329 from:
to:
----
Changed line 344 from:
to:
----
Changed line 438 from:
!!Network
to:
!!Network Settings
Changed lines 684-685 from:
!!iptables v1.4.12.2
to:
!!!Firewall iptables v1.4.12.2
Changed lines 802-803 from:
!!!tcpdump version 4.2.1
!!!libpcap version 1.2.1
to:
!!!Analysis of Netowrk using tcpdump version 4.2.1 libpcap version 1.2.1
Changed line 1033 from:
!!fsck from util-linux 2.21.1
to:
!!Fixing file system using fsck from util-linux 2.21.1
Changed line 1112 from:
!!ps - report a snapshot of the current processes.
to:
!!Performance monitoring using ps - report a snapshot of the current processes.
Added lines 1273-1274:

!!sar - Collect, report, or save system activity information.
Deleted lines 1275-1277:

!!sar - Collect, report, or save system activity information.
---
December 09, 2012, at 05:32 AM by 101.63.171.227 -
Changed line 29 from:
to:
----
Added line 34:
-------------------
Changed lines 45-46 from:
# chkconfig --list
to:
chkconfig --list
Changed lines 48-49 from:
# chkconfig httpd on
to:
chkconfig httpd on
Changed lines 52-53 from:
# chkconfig --config myscript
# chkconfig myscript on
to:
chkconfig --config myscript
chkconfig myscript on
Changed lines 62-63 from:
# sudo nano /etc/sysconfig/network
to:
sudo nano /etc/sysconfig/network
Changed lines 71-72 from:
# /etc/init.d/network restart
to:
/etc/init.d/network restart
Changed line 75 from:
to:
----
Added line 114:
!!! Yum/RPM (CentOS, Fedora, Red Hat)
Deleted lines 115-117:

!!! Yum/RPM (CentOS, Fedora, Red Hat)
December 09, 2012, at 05:30 AM by 101.63.171.227 -
Added lines 26-164:
@]

!!Run Levels

!!!Red Hat as well as most of its derivatives (such as CentOS) uses runlevels like this:

[@
ID Description
0 Halt
1 Single user
2 Full multi-user with no networking
3 Full multi-user, console logins only
4 Not used/User definable
5 Full multi-user, with display manager as well as console logins
6 Reboot
@]

!!!List of available services already configured.
# chkconfig --list

!!!Make a service start for normal usage
# chkconfig httpd on

!!!If you have this init file listed in /etc/init.d/ you only need to run two commands to get it running at boot
[@
# chkconfig --config myscript
# chkconfig myscript on
@]

!!CentOS - Hostname Change

!!!Open the /etc/sysconfig/network file with your favorite text editor.

!!!Modify the HOSTNAME= value to match your FQDN host name.
[@
# sudo nano /etc/sysconfig/network

HOSTNAME=myserver.domain.com
@]

Change the host that is associated to your main IPaddress for your server,
this is for internal networking (found at /etc/hosts):

!!!Restart Networking
# /etc/init.d/network restart

!!!General Package Installation Guidelines APT/Dpkg (Debian, Ubuntu)

[@
Install package:

aptitude install PACKAGENAME

Reinstall package:

aptitude reinstall PACKAGENAME

Remove package (keep config files):

aptitude remove PACKAGENAME

Remove package and purge config files:

aptitude remove --purge PACKAGENAME

Update package list:

aptitude update

Upgrade system (security/bug fixes):

aptitude upgrade

Upgrade system to newest release (dangerous!):

aptitude dist-upgrade

Show info on an installed package:

aptitude show PACKAGENAME

Search package repositories:

aptitude search SEARCHSTRING
@]

----

!!! Yum/RPM (CentOS, Fedora, Red Hat)

[@
Install package:

yum install PACKAGENAME

Remove package:

yum remove PACKAGENAME

Update package:

yum update PACKAGENAME

List available updates:

yum list updates

Update system:

yum update

Upgrade system to newest release (dangerous!):

yum upgrade

Show package:

yum list PACKAGENAME

Search package repositories:

yum search SEARCHSTRING

List package groups:

yum grouplist

Install package group:

yum groupinstall 'GROUP NAME'

Update package group:

yum groupupdate 'GROUP NAME'

Remove package group:

yum groupremove 'GROUP NAME'
December 09, 2012, at 04:48 AM by 101.63.171.227 -
Changed lines 122-126 from:

!!!Network

----
!!!ethtool - query or control network driver and hardware settings
to:
!!!Temporary IP Address Assignment

To temporarily configure an IP address, you can use the ifconfig command in the following manner.

Just modify the IP address and subnet mask to match your network requirements.

[@
sudo ifconfig eth0 10.0.0.100 netmask 255.255.255.0
@]

!!![root@fedora ~]# ifconfig -a em1
[@
em1: flags=4099<UP,BROADCAST,MULTICAST> mtu 1500
inet 192.168.56.104 netmask 255.255.255.0 broadcast 192.168.56.255
ether 00:08:74:22:5c:61 txqueuelen 1000 (Ethernet)
RX packets 0 bytes 0 (0.0 B)
RX errors 0 dropped 0 overruns 0 frame 0
TX packets 0 bytes 0 (0.0 B)
TX errors 0 dropped 0 overruns 0 carrier 0 collisions 0
device interrupt 11 base 0x2c00
@]

!!!To configure a default gateway, you can use the route command in the following manner.

Modify the default gateway address to match your network requirements.

[@
sudo route add default gw 10.0.0.1 eth0
@]


If you no longer need this configuration and wish to purge all IP configuration
from an interface, you can use the ip command with the flush option as shown below.
[@
ip addr flush eth0
@]


!!Static IP Address Assignment in Ubuntu

Open - /etc/network/interfaces

[@
auto eth0
iface eth0 inet static
address 10.0.0.100
netmask 255.255.255.0
gateway 10.0.0.1
@]

!!!DNS Client Configuration

To configure your system to use DNS for name resolution, add the IP addresses of the DNS servers
that are appropriate for your network in the file /etc/resolv.conf.
You can also add an optional DNS suffix search-lists to match your network domain names.

Below is an example of a typical configuration of /etc/resolv.conf for a server on
the domain "example.com" and using two public DNS servers.

[@
search example.com
nameserver 8.8.8.8
nameserver 8.8.4.4
@]

!!!Name Service Switch Configuration

The order in which your system selects a method of resolving hostnames to IP addresses is
controlled by the Name Service Switch (NSS) configuration file /etc/nsswitch.conf.

As mentioned in the previous section, typically static hostnames defined in the
systems /etc/hosts file have precedence over names resolved from DNS.
The following is an example of the line responsible for this order of
hostname lookups in the file /etc/nsswitch.conf.

[@
hosts: files mdns4_minimal [NOTFOUND=return] dns mdns4
@]


!!!Bridging

Before configuring a bridge you will need to install the bridge-utils package.

To install the package, in a terminal enter:

[@
sudo apt-get install bridge-utils
@]

Next, configure the bridge by editing /etc/network/interfaces:

[@
auto lo
iface lo inet loopback

auto br0
iface br0 inet static
address 192.168.0.10
network 192.168.0.0
netmask 255.255.255.0
broadcast 192.168.0.255
gateway 192.168.0.1
bridge_ports eth0
bridge_fd 9
bridge_hello 2
bridge_maxage 12
bridge_stp off
@]

!!!sudo /etc/init.d/networking restart


!!Bonding on CentOS

----

!!!In the modprobe.conf file add the following:

[@
alias bond0 bonding
options bond0 miimon=80 mode=5
@]

!!!Be sure to add this before any of the network aliases
[@
modes:
mode=0 (Balance Round Robin)
mode=1 (Active backup)
mode=2 (Balance XOR)
mode=3 (Broadcast)
mode=4 (802.3ad)
mode=5 (Balance TLB)
mode=6 (Balance ALB)
@]

!!!In the /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ directory create ifcfg-bond0

[@
DEVICE=bond0
IPADDR=<ip address>
NETMASK=
NETWORK=
BROADCAST=
GATEWAY=
ONBOOT=yes
BOOTPROTO=none
USERCTL=no
@]

!!!Change the ifcfg-eth0 to:
[@
DEVICE=eth0
ONBOOT=yes
BOOTPROTO=none
USERCTL=no
MASTER=bond0
SLAVE=yes
@]

!!!Check the status of the bond.
[@
cat /proc/net/bonding/bond0
@]

You can use multiple bond interface but for that you must load the bonding module as many as you need.

Presuming that you want two bond interface you must configure the /etc/modules.conf as follow:

[@
alias bond0 bonding
options bond0 -o bond0 mode=0 miimon=100
alias bond1 bonding
options bond1 -o bond1 mode=1 miimon=100
@]

!!Network
December 09, 2012, at 04:13 AM by 101.63.197.139 -
Added line 1069:
!!Page size
Deleted lines 1070-1072:
!!Page size
----
Changed lines 1091-1092 from:
* How to check how many MPF and MnPF occured - here we are opening acroread.
to:
!!!How to check how many MPF and MnPF occured - here we are opening acroread.

!!!/usr/bin/time -v acroread
Deleted line 1095:
fedora@fedora ~/Documents> /usr/bin/time -v acroread
Changed lines 1103-1104 from:
* When you run it the second time MPF will be less
to:
!!!When you run it the second time MPF will be less

!!!/usr/bin/time -v acroread
Deleted lines 1106-1107:
fedora@fedora ~/Documents> /usr/bin/time -v acroread
Changed lines 1114-1115 from:
* Buffer Cache is used to minimize MPF & MnPF
to:
!!!Buffer Cache is used to minimize MPF & MnPF
Changed line 1183 from:
to:
----
December 09, 2012, at 04:08 AM by 101.63.197.139 -
Added lines 1068-1185:

----
!!Page size
----

* Kernel breaks DISK IO into pages.
* Default is 4K.
* Reads and writes in 4K page size.
* When application start its searches the CPU cache and Memory.
* If the data dont exists there then it issues and MPF major page fault.
* MPF issued to get the data from disk to RAM.
* MPF is a request to disk.
* Once the page is in buffer cache kernel will use it and it will result in MnPF minor page fault.
* How to check how many MPF and MnPF occured.

!!![root@fedora ~]# /usr/bin/time -v date
[@
Sun Dec 9 13:23:45 IST 2012
Command being timed: "date"
Major (requiring I/O) page faults: 0
Minor (reclaiming a frame) page faults: 224
Page size (bytes): 4096
Exit status: 0
@]

* How to check how many MPF and MnPF occured - here we are opening acroread.

[@
fedora@fedora ~/Documents> /usr/bin/time -v acroread
Command being timed: "acroread"
Major (requiring I/O) page faults: 363
Minor (reclaiming a frame) page faults: 28663
Page size (bytes): 4096
Exit status: 0
@]

* When you run it the second time MPF will be less

[@
fedora@fedora ~/Documents> /usr/bin/time -v acroread

Command being timed: "acroread"
Average resident set size (kbytes): 0
Major (requiring I/O) page faults: 7
Minor (reclaiming a frame) page faults: 25224
Exit status: 0
@]

* Buffer Cache is used to minimize MPF & MnPF

!!![root@fedora ~]# cat /proc/meminfo |egrep 'Ca|Bu|Me'
[@
MemTotal: 767356 kB
MemFree: 89092 kB
Buffers: 29292 kB
Cached: 331528 kB
SwapCached: 10444 kB
@]

!!![root@fedora ~]# acroread
[@
[root@fedora ~]# cat /proc/meminfo |egrep 'Ca|Bu|Me'
MemTotal: 767356 kB
MemFree: 73220 kB
Buffers: 29212 kB
Cached: 347292 kB
SwapCached: 10436 kB
@]

!!! Dirty Pages:

* Pages - data - that are modified by the kernel in the memory, this needs to be synced backed to the disk.
* pdflush daemon will move this pages from the memory to the disk to create more memory space.
* If memory is less, then kswapd + pdflush will wirte pages to the disk.


!!![root@fedora ~]# vmstat 1
[@
procs -----------memory---------- ---swap-- -----io---- --system-- -----cpu-----
r b swpd free buff cache si so bi bo in cs us sy id wa st
1 0 85208 59000 27420 340796 0 1 11 14 172 182 7 2 91 1 0
1 1 85208 52716 28128 343892 0 0 3088 0 822 968 37 16 3 44 0
2 6 85224 58044 26252 336596 0 16 5356 24 1278 961 40 21 0 38 0
0 6 85228 58044 24940 335028 0 4 2592 148 1275 1096 39 20 0 41 0
3 2 85228 54300 24988 337692 0 0 2216 160 1110 778 26 11 0 63 0
0 1 85260 60984 25004 331280 0 32 2784 672 900 724 29 20 0 51 0
3 1 85260 58264 25004 333208 0 0 5480 0 775 667 14 12 0 73 0
2 1 85424 60992 24048 331056 0 164 2544 220 1424 757 49 26 0 24 0
2 1 85716 61068 17348 328656 0 292 5808 292 1655 736 48 52 0 0 0
0 2 86628 61036 16476 320944 0 912 9024 912 1570 915 50 43 0 7 0
1 0 86628 54216 16476 324532 0 0 4120 0 1307 1313 85 14 0 1 0
2 1 86628 58068 16476 330960 0 0 5976 0 1173 670 77 15 0 8 0

@]


!!![root@fedora ~]# sar 1 100
[@
Linux 3.3.4-5.fc17.i686 (fedora.example.com) 12/09/2012 _i686_ (1 CPU)

02:29:48 PM CPU %user %nice %system %iowait %steal %idle
02:29:49 PM all 7.07 0.00 9.09 0.00 0.00 83.84
02:29:50 PM all 8.00 0.00 4.00 0.00 0.00 88.00
@]


!!![root@fedora ~]# sar -B 1 3
[@
Linux 3.3.4-5.fc17.i686 (fedora.example.com) 12/09/2012 _i686_ (1 CPU)

02:31:34 PM pgpgin/s pgpgout/s fault/s majflt/s pgfree/s pgscank/s pgscand/s pgsteal/s %vmeff
02:31:35 PM 0.00 0.00 661.62 0.00 34.34 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
02:31:36 PM 0.00 0.00 274.00 0.00 32.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
02:31:37 PM 0.00 0.00 233.67 0.00 43.88 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Average: 0.00 0.00 389.90 0.00 36.70 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
@]
December 09, 2012, at 02:44 AM by 101.62.23.161 -
Added lines 959-1067:

!!sar - Collect, report, or save system activity information.
---
[@
Usage: sar [ options ] [ <interval> [ <count> ] ]
Main options and reports:
-b I/O and transfer rate statistics
-B Paging statistics
-d Block device statistics
-H Hugepages utilization statistics
-q Queue length and load average statistics
-r Memory utilization statistics
-R Memory statistics
-S Swap space utilization statistics
-u [ ALL ]
CPU utilization statistics
-v Kernel table statistics
-w Task creation and system switching statistics
-W Swapping statistics
-y TTY device statistics
@]


!!![root@fedora ~]# sar -B 5 5
[@
Linux 3.3.4-5.fc17.i686 (fedora.example.com) 12/09/2012 _i686_ (1 CPU)
12:44:44 PM pgpgin/s pgpgout/s fault/s majflt/s pgfree/s pgscank/s pgscand/s pgsteal/s %vmeff
12:44:49 PM 0.00 10.53 99.60 0.00 304.05 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
12:44:54 PM 0.00 51.51 430.38 0.00 858.75 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
12:44:59 PM 0.00 8.11 23.12 0.00 490.47 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
12:45:04 PM 0.81 123.64 666.06 0.00 340.61 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
12:45:09 PM 0.00 15.42 100.00 0.00 101.22 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Average: 0.16 41.91 264.36 0.00 419.62 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
@]
This report contains two columns: “fault/s” and “majflt/s”.

What is the difference between a “fault”, sometimes known as a “soft fault”, and a “major fault”
(aka “hard fault”)? Soft fault happens when the process needs a page that is already in memory,
but was freed by the page replacement process.

Major or “hard” fault happens when the page needs to be brought into memory from disk.

Major faults are, of course, much more expensive and take much longer to complete then the soft ones.

Large number of major page faults can slow the system down to the crawl.

On an average system, major page faults are responsible for the vast majority of the CPU time spent in the kernel mode.

!!!System memory

!!![root@fedora ~]# sar -r 3 5
[@
Linux 3.3.4-5.fc17.i686 (fedora.example.com) 12/09/2012 _i686_ (1 CPU)
12:48:48 PM kbmemfree kbmemused %memused kbbuffers kbcached kbcommit %commit kbactive kbinact
12:48:51 PM 147940 619416 80.72 49316 230616 1244392 53.93 304776 263268
12:48:54 PM 143352 624004 81.32 49316 235184 1248940 54.13 304780 267808
12:48:57 PM 146452 620904 80.91 49324 232324 1246020 54.00 305016 264828
12:49:00 PM 140624 626732 81.67 49324 238108 1251800 54.25 305044 270616
12:49:03 PM 139756 627600 81.79 49332 238616 1252280 54.27 305048 271128
Average: 143625 623731 81.28 49322 234970 1248686 54.12 304933 267530
@]

!!atop - AT Computing's System & Process Monitor
----
[@
Usage: atop [-flags] [interval [samples]]
or
Usage: atop -w file [-S] [-a] [interval [samples]]
atop -r [file] [-b hh:mm] [-e hh:mm] [-flags]

generic flags:

-a show or log all processes (i.s.o. active processes only)
-P generate parseable output for specified label(s)
-L alternate line length (default 80) in case of non-screen output
-f show fixed number of lines with system-statistics
-l show limited number of lines for certain resources
-1 show average-per-second i.s.o. total values

-x no colors in case of high occupation
-g show general process-info (default)
-m show memory-related process-info
-d show disk-related process-info
-n show network-related process-info
-s show scheduling-related process-info
-v show various process-info (ppid, user/group, date/time)
-c show command-line per process
-o show own defined process-info
-u show cumulated process-info per user
-p show cumulated process-info per program (i.e. same name)

-C sort processes in order of cpu-consumption (default)
-M sort processes in order of memory-consumption
-D sort processes in order of disk-activity
-N sort processes in order of network-activity
-A sort processes in order of most active resource (auto mode)

specific flags for raw logfiles:

-w write raw data to file (compressed)
-r read raw data from file (compressed)
special file: y[y...] for yesterday (repeated)
-S finish atop automatically before midnight (i.s.o. #samples)
-b begin showing data from specified time
-e finish showing data after specified time

interval: number of seconds (minimum 0)
samples: number of intervals (minimum 1)
@]
December 09, 2012, at 02:12 AM by 101.62.23.161 -
Added lines 799-844:
[@
KEY LONG DESCRIPTION
c cmd simple name of executable
C pcpu cpu utilization
f flags flags as in long format F field
g pgrp process group ID
G tpgid controlling tty process group ID
j cutime cumulative user time
J cstime cumulative system time
k utime user time
m min_flt number of minor page faults
M maj_flt number of major page faults
n cmin_flt cumulative minor page faults
N cmaj_flt cumulative major page faults
o session session ID
p pid process ID
P ppid parent process ID
r rss resident set size
R resident resident pages
s size memory size in kilobytes
S share amount of shared pages
t tty the device number of the controlling tty
T start_time time process was started
U uid user ID number
u user user name
v vsize total VM size in kB
y priority kernel scheduling priority


CODE NORMAL HEADER
%C pcpu %CPU
%G group GROUP
%P ppid PPID
%U user USER
%a args COMMAND
%c comm COMMAND
%g rgroup RGROUP
%n nice NI
%p pid PID
%r pgid PGID
%t etime ELAPSED
%u ruser RUSER
%x time TIME
%y tty TTY
%z vsz VSZ
@]
December 09, 2012, at 02:09 AM by 101.62.23.161 -
Changed lines 883-885 from:
!!!If runnable threads (r column) divided by the number of CPUs is greater than 1,
there
may be a CPU bottleneck
to:
!!!If runnable threads (r column) divided by the number of CPUs is greater than 1,there may be a CPU bottleneck.
Added lines 895-910:
@]

!!!RAM memory usage information

!!![root@fedora ~]# ps v -A|sort -nrk 8|head
[@
PID TTY STAT TIME MAJFL TRS DRS RSS %MEM COMMAND
4918 pts/1 Sl+ 102:47 1112 88 798795 237076 30.8 ./firefox
23824 ? Sl 1:31 80 656 78575 22016 2.8 gedit
3521 ? Sl 1:52 109 44 58019 13812 1.7 lxterminal
1867 tty1 Ss+ 47:46 59 1892 67855 11052 1.4 /usr/bin/X -background none :0
9394 ? Ss 23:47 14 3 18288 10052 1.3 /usr/bin/perl -w /usr/bin/collectl
2676 ? Ss 0:41 90 328 21731 8972 1.1 /usr/bin/openbox --startup /usr/
20629 ? Ssl 1:06 25 231 44896 7676 1.0 /usr/lib/udisks2/udisksd --no-debug
2885 ? Sl 0:00 56 16 50675 6688 0.8 abrt-applet
1883 ? SNs 11:28 2 39 8540 5532 0.7 /usr/sbin/preload --verbose 1
December 09, 2012, at 01:57 AM by 101.62.23.161 -
Added lines 881-896:
@]

!!!If runnable threads (r column) divided by the number of CPUs is greater than 1,
there may be a CPU bottleneck

!!!If us+sy is close to 100%, then there may be a CPU bottleneck

!!![root@fedora ~]# vmstat -a 2 5
[@
procs -----------memory---------- ---swap-- -----io---- --system-- -----cpu-----
r b swpd free inact active si so bi bo in cs us sy id wa st
0 0 63380 87552 333004 285372 0 0 10 14 163 173 6 1 91 1 0
0 0 63380 79616 341456 285380 0 0 0 0 214 155 6 6 88 0 0
0 0 63380 79368 341620 285416 0 0 0 0 222 155 6 8 86 0 0
0 0 63380 79368 341620 285428 0 0 0 0 399 249 6 9 85 0 0
1 0 63380 78980 341760 285432 0 0 0 0 668 304 19 14 68 0 0
December 09, 2012, at 01:46 AM by 101.62.23.161 -
Added lines 853-880:
@]


!!!If RSS (resident set size, in KB) increases over time (so would %MEM),
it may indicate a memory leak in the application.

!!![root@fedora ~]# ps aux --sort pmem|grep -v 0.0
[@
USER PID %CPU %MEM VSZ RSS TTY STAT START TIME COMMAND
root 1867 1.6 1.4 24704 11044 tty1 Rs+ Dec07 45:35 /usr/bin/X -background none :0
root 1883 0.4 0.7 8580 5532 ? SNs Dec07 11:22 /usr/sbin/preload --verbose 1
fedora 4918 3.5 29.7 779648 227920 pts/1 Sl+ Dec07 100:33 ./firefox
root 9394 1.0 1.6 18292 12440 ? Ss Dec07 23:33 /usr/bin/perl -w /usr/bin/collectl
root 18085 0.1 0.1 12244 1520 pts/0 S Dec08 2:19 wvdial reliance
fedora 23824 0.1 2.8 79232 22016 ? Sl Dec08 1:19 gedit
@]

!!![root@fedora ~]# ps ev --pid=4918

[@
PID TTY STAT TIME MAJFL TRS DRS RSS %MEM COMMAND
4918 pts/1 Sl+ 100:33 1100 88 779559 227920 29.7 ./firefox XDG_VTNR=1 XDG_SESSION_ID=1
HOSTNAME=fedora.example.com IMSETTINGS_INTEGRA
[root@fedora ~]# ps ev --pid=4918
PID TTY STAT TIME MAJFL TRS DRS RSS %MEM COMMAND
4918 pts/1 Sl+ 100:33 1100 88 779559 227920 29.7 ./firefox XDG_VTNR=1 XDG_SESSION_ID=1
HOSTNAME=fedora.example.com IMSETTINGS_INTEGRA
December 09, 2012, at 01:41 AM by 101.62.23.161 -
Changed line 829 from:
1867 tty1 Rs+ 44:56 57 1892 36111 11044 1.4 /usr/bin/X -background none :0 vt01 -nolisten tcp
to:
1867 tty1 Rs+ 44:56 57 1892 36111 11044 1.4 /usr/bin/X -background none :0
Changed line 844 from:
root 1867 1.6 1.4 24704 11044 tty1 Rs+ Dec07 44:59 /usr/bin/X -background none :0 vt01 -nolisten tcp
to:
root 1867 1.6 1.4 24704 11044 tty1 Rs+ Dec07 44:59 /usr/bin/X -background none :
December 09, 2012, at 01:39 AM by 101.62.23.161 -
Added lines 826-853:
!!![root@fedora ~]# ps v|head
[@
PID TTY STAT TIME MAJFL TRS DRS RSS %MEM COMMAND
1867 tty1 Rs+ 44:56 57 1892 36111 11044 1.4 /usr/bin/X -background none :0 vt01 -nolisten tcp
3729 pts/0 S 0:00 0 27 6160 1420 0.1 su -
3860 pts/0 S+ 0:00 13 855 5380 1584 0.2 -bash
3928 pts/0 S 0:00 0 855 4416 468 0.0 sh reliacne.sh
5462 pts/3 Ss+ 0:00 0 855 5392 2280 0.2 /bin/bash
5512 pts/4 Ss 0:00 1 855 5392 1720 0.2 /bin/bash
7871 pts/4 S 0:00 4 69 8694 1700 0.2 sudo su - fedora
7872 pts/4 S 0:00 2 27 6160 1724 0.2 su - fedora
18084 pts/0 S 0:00 6 69 8694 1728 0.2 sudo wvdial reliance
@]


!!![root@fedora ~]# ps u |head
[@
USER PID %CPU %MEM VSZ RSS TTY STAT START TIME COMMAND
root 1867 1.6 1.4 24704 11044 tty1 Rs+ Dec07 44:59 /usr/bin/X -background none :0 vt01 -nolisten tcp
root 3729 0.0 0.1 6188 1420 pts/0 S Dec07 0:00 su -
root 3860 0.0 0.2 6236 1584 pts/0 S+ Dec07 0:00 -bash
root 3928 0.0 0.0 5272 468 pts/0 S Dec07 0:00 sh reliacne.sh
root 5462 0.0 0.2 6248 2280 pts/3 Ss+ Dec07 0:00 /bin/bash
root 5512 0.0 0.2 6248 1720 pts/4 Ss Dec07 0:00 /bin/bash
root 7871 0.0 0.2 8764 1700 pts/4 S Dec07 0:00 sudo su - fedora
root 7872 0.0 0.2 6188 1724 pts/4 S Dec07 0:00 su - fedora
root 18084 0.0 0.2 8764 1728 pts/0 S Dec08 0:00 sudo wvdial reliance
@]
December 09, 2012, at 01:32 AM by 101.62.23.161 -
Added lines 812-824:
!!! -o format Specify user-defined format. Identical to -o and --format.

!!!# ps -eo user,etime,pid,pcpu,pmem,comm,size,vsize,start_time,maj_flt,min_flt,tty,ppid|grep -v '0.0'
[@
USER ELAPSED PID %CPU %MEM COMMAND SZ VSZ START MAJFL MINFL TT PPID
root 1-22:34:07 1867 1.5 1.4 X 8496 24704 Dec07 57 3656177 tty1 1818
root 1-22:34:07 1883 0.4 0.7 preload 5096 8580 Dec07 2 642119 ? 1
root 1-13:52:58 9394 1.0 1.6 collectl 11516 18292 Dec07 14 1224 ? 1
root 1-05:16:22 18085 0.1 0.1 wvdial 2648 12244 Dec08 16 800 pts/0 18084
fedora 37:06 18334 0.8 2.6 KKvirtualrooms 51672 81748 11:22 152 10771 pts/1 1
root 08:44 18820 0.1 0.3 bash 1108 6120 11:50 0 3636 pts/5 18817
fedora 17:25:59 23824 0.1 2.8 gedit 32256 79232 Dec08 75 5250 ? 2676
@]
December 09, 2012, at 01:12 AM by 101.62.23.161 -
Added lines 796-811:

!!ps - report a snapshot of the current processes.
----

!!!Display the top ten running processes - sorted by cpu usage.

!!![root@fedora ~]# ps aucx | sort -nuk +3 | tail
[@
USER PID %CPU %MEM VSZ RSS TTY STAT START TIME COMMAND
root 18085 0.1 0.1 12244 1520 pts/0 S Dec08 2:15 wvdial
root 1883 0.4 0.7 8580 5532 ? SNs Dec07 11:15 preload
root 9394 1.0 1.6 18292 12440 ? Ss Dec07 23:11 collectl
root 1867 1.5 1.4 24704 10912 tty1 Rs+ Dec07 43:16 X
fedora 4918 3.5 33.4 771768 256556 pts/1 Sl+ Dec07 98:47 firefox
@]
December 08, 2012, at 11:56 AM by 115.242.205.15 -
Added lines 717-796:

!!fsck from util-linux 2.21.1
----
[@
Usage: fsck.ext4 [-panyrcdfvtDFV] [-b superblock] [-B blocksize]
[-I inode_buffer_blocks] [-P process_inode_size]
[-l|-L bad_blocks_file] [-C fd] [-j external_journal]
[-E extended-options] device
@]

!!!Emergency help:
[@
-p Automatic repair (no questions)
-n Make no changes to the filesystem
-y Assume "yes" to all questions
-c Check for bad blocks and add them to the badblock list
-f Force checking even if filesystem is marked clean
-v Be verbose
-b superblock Use alternative superblock
-B blocksize Force blocksize when looking for superblock
-j external_journal Set location of the external journal
-l bad_blocks_file Add to badblocks list
-L bad_blocks_file Set badblocks list

-N Don't execute, just show what would be done.
@]

!!!root@fedora ~> fsck -N
[@
fsck from util-linux 2.21.1
[/sbin/fsck.ext4 (1) -- /] fsck.ext4 /dev/mapper/vg-lv_root
[/sbin/fsck.ext4 (1) -- /boot] fsck.ext4 /dev/sda1
@]

!!!The exit code returned by fsck is the sum of the following conditions:
[@
0 No errors
1 Filesystem errors corrected
2 System should be rebooted
4 Filesystem errors left uncorrected
8 Operational error
16 Usage or syntax error
32 Fsck canceled by user request
128 Shared-library error
@]


!!!root@fedora ~> fsck
[@
fsck from util-linux 2.21.1
e2fsck 1.42 (29-Nov-2011)
/dev/mapper/vg-lv_root is mounted.

WARNING!!! The filesystem is mounted. If you continue you ***WILL***
cause ***SEVERE*** filesystem damage.
Do you really want to continue<n>? no
check aborted.
e2fsck 1.42 (29-Nov-2011)
/dev/sda1 is mounted.

WARNING!!! The filesystem is mounted. If you continue you ***WILL***
cause ***SEVERE*** filesystem damage.
Do you really want to continue<n>? no
check aborted.
@]

!!!root@fedora ~> fsck -n
[@
fsck from util-linux 2.21.1
e2fsck 1.42 (29-Nov-2011)
Warning! /dev/mapper/vg-lv_root is mounted.
Warning: skipping journal recovery because doing a read-only filesystem check.
_Fedora-17-i686-: clean, 148243/2318336 files, 6288023/9248768 blocks
e2fsck 1.42 (29-Nov-2011)
Warning! /dev/sda1 is mounted.
Warning: skipping journal recovery because doing a read-only filesystem check.
/dev/sda1: clean, 343/128016 files, 62514/512000 blocks
root@fedora ~>
@]
December 08, 2012, at 11:22 AM by 101.62.92.106 -
Added lines 574-716:


!!Nmap 6.01 ( http://nmap.org )
----

!!!Usage: nmap [Scan Type(s)] [Options] {target specification}


!!!EXAMPLES:
[@
nmap -v -A scanme.nmap.org
nmap -v -sn 192.168.0.0/16 10.0.0.0/8
nmap -v -iR 10000 -Pn -p 80
@]

!!!TARGET SPECIFICATION:
[@
Can pass hostnames, IP addresses, networks, etc.
Ex: scanme.nmap.org, microsoft.com/24, 192.168.0.1; 10.0.0-255.1-254
-iL <inputfilename>: Input from list of hosts/networks
-iR <num hosts>: Choose random targets
--exclude <host1[,host2][,host3],...>: Exclude hosts/networks
--excludefile <exclude_file>: Exclude list from file
@]
!!!HOST DISCOVERY:
[@
-sL: List Scan - simply list targets to scan
-sn: Ping Scan - disable port scan
-Pn: Treat all hosts as online -- skip host discovery
-PS/PA/PU/PY[portlist]: TCP SYN/ACK, UDP or SCTP discovery to given ports
-PE/PP/PM: ICMP echo, timestamp, and netmask request discovery probes
-PO[protocol list]: IP Protocol Ping
-n/-R: Never do DNS resolution/Always resolve [default: sometimes]
--dns-servers <serv1[,serv2],...>: Specify custom DNS servers
--system-dns: Use OS's DNS resolver
--traceroute: Trace hop path to each host
@]
!!!SCAN TECHNIQUES:
[@
-sS/sT/sA/sW/sM: TCP SYN/Connect()/ACK/Window/Maimon scans
-sU: UDP Scan
-sN/sF/sX: TCP Null, FIN, and Xmas scans
--scanflags <flags>: Customize TCP scan flags
-sI <zombie host[:probeport]>: Idle scan
-sY/sZ: SCTP INIT/COOKIE-ECHO scans
-sO: IP protocol scan
-b <FTP relay host>: FTP bounce scan
@]
!!!PORT SPECIFICATION AND SCAN ORDER:
[@
-p <port ranges>: Only scan specified ports
Ex: -p22; -p1-65535; -p U:53,111,137,T:21-25,80,139,8080,S:9
-F: Fast mode - Scan fewer ports than the default scan
-r: Scan ports consecutively - don't randomize
--top-ports <number>: Scan <number> most common ports
--port-ratio <ratio>: Scan ports more common than <ratio>
@]
!!!SERVICE/VERSION DETECTION:
[@
-sV: Probe open ports to determine service/version info
--version-intensity <level>: Set from 0 (light) to 9 (try all probes)
--version-light: Limit to most likely probes (intensity 2)
--version-all: Try every single probe (intensity 9)
--version-trace: Show detailed version scan activity (for debugging)
@]
!!!SCRIPT SCAN:
[@
-sC: equivalent to --script=default
--script=<Lua scripts>: <Lua scripts> is a comma separated list of
directories, script-files or script-categories
--script-args=<n1=v1,[n2=v2,...]>: provide arguments to scripts
--script-args-file=filename: provide NSE script args in a file
--script-trace: Show all data sent and received
--script-updatedb: Update the script database.
--script-help=<Lua scripts>: Show help about scripts.
<Lua scripts> is a comma separted list of script-files or
script-categories.
@]
!!!OS DETECTION:
[@
-O: Enable OS detection
--osscan-limit: Limit OS detection to promising targets
--osscan-guess: Guess OS more aggressively
@]

!!!TIMING AND PERFORMANCE:
[@
Options which take <time> are in seconds, or append 'ms' (milliseconds),
's' (seconds), 'm' (minutes), or 'h' (hours) to the value (e.g. 30m).
-T<0-5>: Set timing template (higher is faster)
--min-hostgroup/max-hostgroup <size>: Parallel host scan group sizes
--min-parallelism/max-parallelism <numprobes>: Probe parallelization
--min-rtt-timeout/max-rtt-timeout/initial-rtt-timeout <time>: Specifies
probe round trip time.
--max-retries <tries>: Caps number of port scan probe retransmissions.
--host-timeout <time>: Give up on target after this long
--scan-delay/--max-scan-delay <time>: Adjust delay between probes
--min-rate <number>: Send packets no slower than <number> per second
--max-rate <number>: Send packets no faster than <number> per second
@]
!!!FIREWALL/IDS EVASION AND SPOOFING:
[@
-f; --mtu <val>: fragment packets (optionally w/given MTU)
-D <decoy1,decoy2[,ME],...>: Cloak a scan with decoys
-S <IP_Address>: Spoof source address
-e <iface>: Use specified interface
-g/--source-port <portnum>: Use given port number
--data-length <num>: Append random data to sent packets
--ip-options <options>: Send packets with specified ip options
--ttl <val>: Set IP time-to-live field
--spoof-mac <mac address/prefix/vendor name>: Spoof your MAC address
--badsum: Send packets with a bogus TCP/UDP/SCTP checksum
@]
!!!OUTPUT:
[@
-oN/-oX/-oS/-oG <file>: Output scan in normal, XML, s|<rIpt kIddi3,
and Grepable format, respectively, to the given filename.
-oA <basename>: Output in the three major formats at once
-v: Increase verbosity level (use -vv or more for greater effect)
-d: Increase debugging level (use -dd or more for greater effect)
--reason: Display the reason a port is in a particular state
--open: Only show open (or possibly open) ports
--packet-trace: Show all packets sent and received
--iflist: Print host interfaces and routes (for debugging)
--log-errors: Log errors/warnings to the normal-format output file
--append-output: Append to rather than clobber specified output files
--resume <filename>: Resume an aborted scan
--stylesheet <path/URL>: XSL stylesheet to transform XML output to HTML
--webxml: Reference stylesheet from Nmap.Org for more portable XML
--no-stylesheet: Prevent associating of XSL stylesheet w/XML output
@]
!!!MISC:
[@
-6: Enable IPv6 scanning
-A: Enable OS detection, version detection, script scanning, and traceroute
--datadir <dirname>: Specify custom Nmap data file location
--send-eth/--send-ip: Send using raw ethernet frames or IP packets
--privileged: Assume that the user is fully privileged
--unprivileged: Assume the user lacks raw socket privileges
-V: Print version number
-h: Print this help summary page.
@]
SEE THE MAN PAGE (http://nmap.org/book/man.html) FOR MORE OPTIONS AND EXAMPLES
December 08, 2012, at 11:12 AM by 15.211.153.74 -
Added lines 320-322:


!!Search & Install using yum
Deleted lines 324-326:
!!Search & Install using yum
----
Changed line 485 from:
----
to:
Changed lines 488-489 from:
to:
----
Changed lines 528-530 from:
[@

To print all packets arriving at or departing from sundown:
to:

!!!
To print all packets arriving at or departing from sundown:
Changed line 533 from:
To print traffic between helios and either hot or ace:
to:
!!!To print traffic between helios and either hot or ace:
Changed line 536 from:
To print all IP packets between ace and any host except helios:
to:
!!!To print all IP packets between ace and any host except helios:
Changed line 539 from:
To print all traffic between local hosts and hosts at Berkeley:
to:
!!!To print all traffic between local hosts and hosts at Berkeley:
Changed lines 542-543 from:
To print all ftp traffic through internet gateway snup:
to:
!!!To print all ftp traffic through internet gateway snup:
Changed lines 548-549 from:
To print traffic neither sourced from nor destined for local hosts
to:
!!!To print traffic neither sourced from nor destined for local hosts
Changed lines 554-555 from:
To print the start and end packets (the SYN and FIN packets) of each TCP
to:
!!!To print the start and end packets (the SYN and FIN packets) of each TCP
Changed lines 560-561 from:
To print all IPv4 HTTP packets to and from port 80, i.e. print only packets that contain data, not,
to:
!!!To print all IPv4 HTTP packets to and from port 80, i.e. print only packets that contain data, not,
Changed line 566 from:
To print IP packets longer than 576 bytes sent through gateway snup:
to:
!!!To print IP packets longer than 576 bytes sent through gateway snup:
Changed line 569 from:
To print IP broadcast or multicast packets that were not sent via Ethernet broadcast or multicast:
to:
!!!To print IP broadcast or multicast packets that were not sent via Ethernet broadcast or multicast:
Changed line 572 from:
To print all ICMP packets that are not echo requests/replies (i.e., not ping packets):
to:
!!!To print all ICMP packets that are not echo requests/replies (i.e., not ping packets):
Changed line 574 from:
@]
to:
----
December 08, 2012, at 11:08 AM by 15.211.153.74 -
Changed lines 369-370 from:
!!!iptables v1.4.12.2
to:
!!iptables v1.4.12.2
----
!!!Lists your current rules in iptables.
iptables -L

!!!Allowing Established Sessions
iptables -A INPUT -m state --state ESTABLISHED,RELATED -j ACCEPT

!!!Allowing Incoming Traffic on Specific Ports
iptables -A INPUT -p tcp --dport ssh -j ACCEPT

!!!Allow all incoming web traffic.
iptables -A INPUT -p tcp --dport 80 -j ACCEPT

!!!Blocking Traffic.
iptables -A INPUT -j DROP

!!!Insert it as the first rule
iptables -I INPUT 1 -i lo -j ACCEPT

!!!Logging
iptables -I INPUT 5 -m limit --limit 5/min -j LOG --log-prefix "iptables denied: " --log-level 7

!!!Saving iptables
To save the configuration, you can use iptables-save and iptables-restore.

iptables-save > /etc/iptables.rules

iptables-restore < /etc/iptables.rules

!!!Disabling the firewall
Changed lines 401-403 from:
Examples:

#
allow 2 telnet connections per client host
to:
iptables -F
iptables -X
iptables -t nat -F
iptables -t nat -X
iptables -t mangle -F
iptables -t mangle -X
iptables -P INPUT ACCEPT
iptables -P FORWARD ACCEPT
iptables -P OUTPUT ACCEPT
@]

!!Examples:

!!!
allow 2 telnet connections per client host
Changed line 417 from:
# you can also match the other way around:
to:
!!! you can also match the other way around:
Changed line 420 from:
# limit the number of parallel HTTP requests to 16 per class C sized source network
to:
!!! limit the number of parallel HTTP requests to 16 per class C sized source network
Changed line 425 from:
# limit the number of parallel HTTP requests to 16 for the link local network
to:
!!! limit the number of parallel HTTP requests to 16 for the link local network
Changed line 429 from:
# Limit the number of connections to a particular host:
to:
!!! Limit the number of connections to a particular host:
Added line 433:
[@
December 08, 2012, at 10:44 AM by 15.211.153.77 -
Changed line 25 from:
13 http://www.kernel.org/pub/linux/kernel/v3.0/linux-3.6.9.tar.bz2
to:
13 URL http://www.kernel.org/pub/linux/kernel/v3.0/linux-3.6.9.tar.bz2
December 08, 2012, at 09:29 AM by 101.62.92.106 -
Added lines 3-26:
----
[@
1 OS family Unix-like

2 Source model Free and open source software

3 Initial release 1991

4 Supported platforms Alpha, ARM, AVR32, Blackfin, C6x, ETRAX CRIS, FR-V, H8/300,
5 Hexagon, Itanium, M32R, m68k, Microblaze, MIPS, MN103,
6 OpenRISC, PA-RISC, PowerPC, s390, S+core, SuperH,
7 SPARC, TILE64, Unicore32, x86, Xtensa

8 Kernel type Monolithic


9 License "Linux" trademark owned by Linus Torvalds
and administered by the Linux Mark Institute)

10 HTTP https://www.kernel.org/pub/
11 FTP ftp://ftp.kernel.org/pub/
12 RSYNC rsync://rsync.kernel.org/pub/
13 http://www.kernel.org/pub/linux/kernel/v3.0/linux-3.6.9.tar.bz2
@]
December 08, 2012, at 09:18 AM by 101.62.92.106 -
Changed line 4 from:
!!!Checking for running kernel and system
to:
!!!Running kernel and system
December 08, 2012, at 09:16 AM by 101.62.92.106 -
Changed lines 477-478 from:
To print all ftp traffic through internet gateway snup: (note that the expression is quoted to prevent the shell from (mis-)inter‐preting the parentheses):
to:
To print all ftp traffic through internet gateway snup:

(note that the expression is quoted to prevent the shell from (mis-)inter‐preting the parentheses):
Changed lines 483-484 from:
To print traffic neither sourced from nor destined for local hosts (if you gateway to one other net, this stuff should never make itonto your local net).
to:
To print traffic neither sourced from nor destined for local hosts

(if you gateway to one other net, this stuff should never make itonto your local net).
Changed lines 489-490 from:
To print the start and end packets (the SYN and FIN packets) of each TCP conversation that involves a non-local host.
to:
To print the start and end packets (the SYN and FIN packets) of each TCP

conversation that involves a non-local host.
Changed lines 495-497 from:
To print all IPv4 HTTP packets to and from port 80, i.e. print only packets that contain data, not, for example, SYN and FIN packets and ACK-only packets. (IPv6 is left as an exercise for the reader.)
to:
To print all IPv4 HTTP packets to and from port 80, i.e. print only packets that contain data, not,

for example, SYN and FIN packets and ACK-only packets. (IPv6 is left as an exercise for the reader.)
December 08, 2012, at 09:14 AM by 101.62.92.106 -
Changed lines 254-255 from:
deletes the current default route, which is labeled "default" or 0.0.0.0 in the destination field of the current routing table.
to:
deletes the current default route, which is labeled "default" or

0.0.0.0 in the destination field of the current routing table.
Changed lines 260-263 from:
Adds a default route (which will be used if no other route matches). All packets using this route will be gatewayed through "mango-gw".

The device which will actually be used for that route depends on how we can reach "mango-gw" - the static route to "mango-gw" will have to be set up before.
to:
Adds a default route (which will be used if no other route matches).

All packets using this route will be gatewayed through "mango-gw".

The device which will actually be used for that route depends on

how we can reach "mango-gw" - the static route to "mango-gw" will have to be set up before.
Added line 282:
December 08, 2012, at 09:13 AM by 101.62.92.106 -
Changed lines 243-245 from:
adds the normal loopback entry, using netmask 255.0.0.0 and associated with the "lo" device
to:

Adds
the normal loopback entry, using netmask 255.0.0.0 and associated with the "lo" device
Added line 249:
Changed lines 253-255 from:
deletes the current default route, which is labeled "default" or 0.0.0.0 in the destination
field of the current routing table.
to:

deletes the current default route, which is labeled "default" or 0.0.0.0 in the destination field of the current routing table.
Changed lines 257-261 from:
adds a default route (which will be used if no other route matches).
All
packets using this route will be gatewayed through "mango-gw".
The device which will actually be used for that route depends on how
we can reach "mango-gw" - the static route to "mango-gw" will have to be set up before.
to:

Adds
a default route (which will be used if no other route matches). All packets using this route will be gatewayed through "mango-gw".

The device which will actually be used for that route depends on how we can reach "mango-gw" - the static route to "mango-gw" will have to be set up before.
Changed lines 263-264 from:
Adds the route to the "ipx4" host via the SLIP interface (assuming that "ipx4" is the SLIP host).
to:
Adds the route to the "ipx4" host via the SLIP interface

(assuming that "ipx4" is the SLIP host).
Changed lines 268-269 from:
This command adds the net "192.57.66.x" to be gatewayed through the former route to the SLIP interface.
to:

This command adds the net "192.57.66.x" to be gatewayed through the
former route to the SLIP interface.
Changed lines 273-276 from:
This is an obscure one documented so people know how to do it. This sets all of the class D (multicast) IP routes to go via "eth0". This is the correct normal configuration line with a multicasting kernel.
to:
This is an obscure one documented so people know how to do it.

This sets all of the class D (multicast) IP routes to go via "eth0".
This is the correct normal configuration line with a multicasting kernel.
December 08, 2012, at 09:10 AM by 101.62.92.106 -
Changed lines 345-346 from:
(ipv6) ip6tables -p tcp --syn --dport 80 -s fe80::/64 -m connlimit --connlimit-above 16 --connlimit-mask 64 -j REJECT
to:
(ipv6) ip6tables -p tcp --syn --dport 80 -s fe80::/64 -m connlimit
--connlimit-above 16 --connlimit-mask 64 -j REJECT
Changed lines 349-350 from:
ip6tables -p tcp --syn --dport 49152:65535 -d 2001:db8::1 -m connlimit --connlimit-above 100 -j REJECT
to:
ip6tables -p tcp --syn --dport 49152:65535 -d 2001:db8::1 -m connlimit
--connlimit-above 100 -j REJECT
Added line 421:
Deleted lines 422-425:
fedora.example.com.58434 > google-public-dns-a.google.com.domain: [udp sum ok] 18530+ A? www.google.com. (32)
19:20:30.349171 IP (tos 0x0, ttl 64, id 17267, offset 0, flags [DF], proto UDP (17), length 66)
fedora.example.com.38580 > google-public-dns-a.google.com.domain: [udp sum ok] 47781+ PTR? 8.8.8.8.in-addr.arpa. (38)
19:20:30.373628 IP (tos 0x0, ttl 64, id 45343, offset 0, flags [DF], proto TCP (6), length 60)
Changed lines 447-448 from:
To print all packets arriving at or departing from sundown:
to:
To print all packets arriving at or departing from sundown:
Changed line 451 from:
To print traffic between helios and either hot or ace:
to:
To print traffic between helios and either hot or ace:
Changed line 454 from:
To print all IP packets between ace and any host except helios:
to:
To print all IP packets between ace and any host except helios:
Changed line 457 from:
To print all traffic between local hosts and hosts at Berkeley:
to:
To print all traffic between local hosts and hosts at Berkeley:
Changed lines 460-463 from:
To print all ftp traffic through internet gateway snup:
(note that the expression is quoted to prevent the shell
from (mis-)inter‐preting the parentheses):
to:
To print all ftp traffic through internet gateway snup: (note that the expression is quoted to prevent the shell from (mis-)inter‐preting the parentheses):
Changed lines 464-466 from:
To print traffic neither sourced from nor destined for local hosts
(if you gateway to one other net, this stuff should never make itonto your local net).
to:
To print traffic neither sourced from nor destined for local hosts (if you gateway to one other net, this stuff should never make itonto your local net).
Changed lines 468-470 from:
To print the start and end packets (the SYN and FIN packets) of each TCP conversation
that involves a non-local host.
to:
To print the start and end packets (the SYN and FIN packets) of each TCP conversation that involves a non-local host.
Changed line 476 from:
To print IP packets longer than 576 bytes sent through gateway snup:
to:
To print IP packets longer than 576 bytes sent through gateway snup:
December 08, 2012, at 09:07 AM by 101.62.92.106 -
Changed lines 339-341 from:
# limit the number of parallel HTTP requests to 16 per class C sized source network (24 bit netmask)
to:
# limit the number of parallel HTTP requests to 16 per class C sized source network
(24 bit netmask)
Changed line 420 from:
fedora.example.com.58434 > google-public-dns-a.google.com.domain: [udp sum ok] 18530+ A? www.google.com. (32)
to:
fedora.example.com.58434 > google-public-dns-a.google.com.domain: [udp sum ok] 18530+ A? www.google.com. (32)
Changed line 422 from:
fedora.example.com.38580 > google-public-dns-a.google.com.domain: [udp sum ok] 47781+ PTR? 8.8.8.8.in-addr.arpa. (38)
to:
fedora.example.com.38580 > google-public-dns-a.google.com.domain: [udp sum ok] 47781+ PTR? 8.8.8.8.in-addr.arpa. (38)
Changed lines 442-443 from:
fedora.example.com.53907 > fedora.example.com.ssh: Flags [P.], cksum 0xf277 (incorrect -> 0x810b),
seq 2665032021:2665032069, ack 409179203, win 313, options [nop,nop,TS val 107785843 ecr 107770525], length 48
to:
Changed lines 460-463 from:
To print all ftp traffic through internet gateway snup: (note that the expression
is quoted to prevent the shell from (mis-)inter‐
preting the parentheses):
to:
To print all ftp traffic through internet gateway snup:
(note that the expression is quoted to prevent the shell
from (mis-)inter‐preting the parentheses):
Changed lines 466-468 from:
To print traffic neither sourced from nor destined for local hosts (if you gateway to one
other net, this stuff should never make itonto your local net).
to:
To print traffic neither sourced from nor destined for local hosts
(if you gateway to one other net, this stuff should never make itonto your local net).
Changed lines 476-478 from:
To print all IPv4 HTTP packets to and from port 80, i.e. print only packets that contain
data, not, for example, SYN and FIN packets and ACK-only packets. (IPv6 is left as an exercise for the reader.)
to:
To print all IPv4 HTTP packets to and from port 80, i.e. print only packets that contain data, not, for example, SYN and FIN packets and ACK-only packets. (IPv6 is left as an exercise for the reader.)
Changed line 483 from:
To print IP broadcast or multicast packets that were not sent via Ethernet broadcast or multicast:
to:
To print IP broadcast or multicast packets that were not sent via Ethernet broadcast or multicast:
Changed line 486 from:
To print all ICMP packets that are not echo requests/replies (i.e., not ping packets):
to:
To print all ICMP packets that are not echo requests/replies (i.e., not ping packets):
December 08, 2012, at 09:00 AM by 101.62.92.106 -
Added lines 400-488:
!!!tcpdump version 4.2.1
!!!libpcap version 1.2.1


[@
Usage: tcpdump [-aAbdDefhHIJKlLnNOpqRStuUvxX] [ -B size ] [ -c count ]
[ -C file_size ] [ -E algo:secret ] [ -F file ] [ -G seconds ]
[ -i interface ] [ -j tstamptype ] [ -M secret ]
[ -r file ] [ -s snaplen ] [ -T type ] [ -w file ]
[ -W filecount ] [ -y datalinktype ] [ -z command ]
[ -Z user ] [ expression ]

@]

!!!root@fedora ~> tcpdump -vv
[@
tcpdump: listening on ppp0, link-type LINUX_SLL (Linux cooked), capture size 65535 bytes
19:20:30.346592 IP (tos 0x0, ttl 64, id 17265, offset 0, flags [DF], proto UDP (17), length 60)
fedora.example.com.58434 > google-public-dns-a.google.com.domain: [udp sum ok] 18530+ A? www.google.com. (32)
19:20:30.349171 IP (tos 0x0, ttl 64, id 17267, offset 0, flags [DF], proto UDP (17), length 66)
fedora.example.com.38580 > google-public-dns-a.google.com.domain: [udp sum ok] 47781+ PTR? 8.8.8.8.in-addr.arpa. (38)
19:20:30.373628 IP (tos 0x0, ttl 64, id 45343, offset 0, flags [DF], proto TCP (6), length 60)
@]

!!!root@fedora ~> tcpdump -D
[@
1.ppp0
2.nflog (Linux netfilter log (NFLOG) interface)
3.em1
4.usbmon1 (USB bus number 1)
5.any (Pseudo-device that captures on all interfaces)
6.lo
root@fedora ~>

@]

!!!root@fedora ~> tcpdump -vv -i lo port 22
[@
tcpdump: listening on lo, link-type EN10MB (Ethernet), capture size 65535 bytes
19:26:25.420823 IP (tos 0x0, ttl 64, id 6860, offset 0, flags [DF], proto TCP (6), length 100)
fedora.example.com.53907 > fedora.example.com.ssh: Flags [P.], cksum 0xf277 (incorrect -> 0x810b),
seq 2665032021:2665032069, ack 409179203, win 313, options [nop,nop,TS val 107785843 ecr 107770525], length 48
@]


!!!EXAMPLES
[@
To print all packets arriving at or departing from sundown:
tcpdump host sundown

To print traffic between helios and either hot or ace:
tcpdump host helios and \( hot or ace \)

To print all IP packets between ace and any host except helios:
tcpdump ip host ace and not helios

To print all traffic between local hosts and hosts at Berkeley:
tcpdump net ucb-ether

To print all ftp traffic through internet gateway snup: (note that the expression
is quoted to prevent the shell from (mis-)inter‐
preting the parentheses):

tcpdump 'gateway snup and (port ftp or ftp-data)'

To print traffic neither sourced from nor destined for local hosts (if you gateway to one
other net, this stuff should never make itonto your local net).

tcpdump ip and not net localnet

To print the start and end packets (the SYN and FIN packets) of each TCP conversation
that involves a non-local host.

tcpdump 'tcp[tcpflags] & (tcp-syn|tcp-fin) != 0 and not src and dst net localnet'

To print all IPv4 HTTP packets to and from port 80, i.e. print only packets that contain
data, not, for example, SYN and FIN packets and ACK-only packets. (IPv6 is left as an exercise for the reader.)

tcpdump 'tcp port 80 and (((ip[2:2] - ((ip[0]&0xf)<<2)) - ((tcp[12]&0xf0)>>2)) != 0)'

To print IP packets longer than 576 bytes sent through gateway snup:
tcpdump 'gateway snup and ip[2:2] > 576'

To print IP broadcast or multicast packets that were not sent via Ethernet broadcast or multicast:
tcpdump 'ether[0] & 1 = 0 and ip[16] >= 224'

To print all ICMP packets that are not echo requests/replies (i.e., not ping packets):
tcpdump 'icmp[icmptype] != icmp-echo and icmp[icmptype] != icmp-echoreply'
@]
December 08, 2012, at 08:44 AM by 101.62.92.106 -
Added lines 3-4:

!!!Checking for running kernel and system
Deleted lines 5-7:
!!!Checking for running kernel and system
----
Changed lines 79-80 from:
!!!Use chkconfig to configure the programs that will be started at boot in a runlevel.
to:
!!!dmidecode is a tool for dumping a computer's DMI (some say SMBIOS)
Changed lines 82-87 from:

# chkconfig --list
# List all init scripts
# chkconfig --list sshd # Report the status of sshd
# chkconfig sshd --level 35 on # Configure sshd for levels 3 and 5
# chkconfig sshd off # Disable sshd for all runlevels
to:
root@fedora ~> dmidecode |grep -i Vendor
Vendor: Dell Computer Corporation
root@fedora ~>
Changed lines 87-92 from:
!!!Network
----

!!!ethtool - query or control network driver and hardware settings
to:
!!!Services

!!!Use chkconfig to configure the programs that will be started at boot in a runlevel.
Added lines 91-103:

# chkconfig --list # List all init scripts
# chkconfig --list sshd # Report the status of sshd
# chkconfig sshd --level 35 on # Configure sshd for levels 3 and 5
# chkconfig sshd off # Disable sshd for all runlevels

@]

!!!Network
----
!!!ethtool - query or control network driver and hardware settings

[@
Added line 145:
!!!root@fedora ~> netstat -an | grep LISTEN
Added lines 147-156:
tcp 0 0 0.0.0.0:111 0.0.0.0:* LISTEN
tcp 0 0 0.0.0.0:22 0.0.0.0:* LISTEN
tcp 0 0 0.0.0.0:52769 0.0.0.0:* LISTEN
tcp6 0 0 :::45423 :::* LISTEN
tcp6 0 0 :::111 :::* LISTEN
tcp6 0 0 :::22 :::* LISTEN
@]
!!!Help on netstat

[@
Changed lines 201-202 from:
!!!route - show / manipulate the IP routing table
to:
!!!root@fedora ~> netstat -tupl
Added lines 203-229:
Active Internet connections (only servers)
Proto Recv-Q Send-Q Local Address Foreign Address State PID/Program name
tcp 0 0 *:sunrpc *:* LISTEN 2584/rpcbind
tcp 0 0 *:ssh *:* LISTEN 5046/sshd
tcp 0 0 *:52769 *:* LISTEN 2594/rpc.statd
tcp6 0 0 [::]:45423 [::]:* LISTEN 2594/rpc.statd
tcp6 0 0 [::]:sunrpc [::]:* LISTEN 2584/rpcbind
tcp6 0 0 [::]:ssh [::]:* LISTEN 5046/sshd
udp 0 0 *:sunrpc *:* 2584/rpcbind
udp 0 0 *:ntp *:* 1858/chronyd
udp 0 0 *:msdp *:* 2584/rpcbind
udp 0 0 fedora.example.com:obex *:* 2594/rpc.statd
udp 0 0 *:44725 *:* 2594/rpc.statd
udp 0 0 *:57569 *:* 1802/avahi-daemon:
udp 0 0 *:mdns *:* 1802/avahi-daemon:
udp 0 0 *:323 *:* 1858/chronyd
udp6 0 0 [::]:sunrpc [::]:* 2584/rpcbind
udp6 0 0 [::]:ntp [::]:* 1858/chronyd
udp6 0 0 [::]:msdp [::]:* 2584/rpcbind
udp6 0 0 [::]:323 [::]:* 1858/chronyd
udp6 0 0 [::]:50517 [::]:* 2594/rpc.statd
root@fedora ~>
@]

!!!route - show / manipulate the IP routing table

[@
Changed lines 328-329 from:
!!!dmidecode is a tool for dumping a computer's DMI (some say SMBIOS)
to:
!!!iptables v1.4.12.2
Changed lines 331-334 from:
root@fedora ~> dmidecode |grep -i Vendor
Vendor: Dell Computer Corporation
root@fedora ~>
to:
Examples:

# allow 2 telnet connections per client host
iptables -A INPUT -p tcp --syn --dport 23 -m connlimit --connlimit-above 2 -j REJECT

# you can also match the other way around:
iptables -A INPUT -p tcp --syn --dport 23 -m connlimit --connlimit-upto 2 -j ACCEPT

# limit the number of parallel HTTP requests to 16 per class C sized source network (24 bit netmask)
iptables -p tcp --syn --dport 80 -m connlimit --connlimit-above 16 --connlimit-mask 24 -j REJECT

# limit the number of parallel HTTP requests to 16 for the link local network
(ipv6) ip6tables -p tcp --syn --dport 80 -s fe80::/64 -m connlimit --connlimit-above 16 --connlimit-mask 64 -j REJECT

# Limit the number of connections to a particular host:
ip6tables -p tcp --syn --dport 49152:65535 -d 2001:db8::1 -m connlimit --connlimit-above 100 -j REJECT

Usage: iptables -[ACD] chain rule-specification [options]
iptables -I chain [rulenum] rule-specification [options]
iptables -R chain rulenum rule-specification [options]
iptables -D chain rulenum [options]
iptables -[LS] [chain [rulenum]] [options]
iptables -[FZ] [chain] [options]
iptables -[NX] chain
iptables -E old-chain-name new-chain-name
iptables -P chain target [options]
iptables -h (print this help information)

Commands:

Either long or short options are allowed.
--append -A chain Append to chain
--check -C chain Check for the existence of a rule
--delete -D chain Delete matching rule from chain
--delete -D chain rulenum Delete rule rulenum (1 = first) from chain
--insert -I chain [rulenum] Insert in chain as rulenum (default 1=first)
--replace -R chain rulenum Replace rule rulenum (1 = first) in chain
--list -L [chain [rulenum]] List the rules in a chain or all chains
--list-rules -S [chain [rulenum]] Print the rules in a chain or all chains
--flush -F [chain] Delete all rules in chain or all chains
--zero -Z [chain [rulenum]] Zero counters in chain or all chains
--new -N chain Create a new user-defined chain
--delete-chain -X [chain] Delete a user-defined chain
--policy -P chain target Change policy on chain to target
--rename-chain -E old-chain new-chain Change chain name, (moving any references)

Options:
--ipv4 -4 Nothing (line is ignored by ip6tables-restore)
--ipv6 -6 Error (line is ignored by iptables-restore)
[!] --proto -p proto protocol: by number or name, eg. `tcp'
[!] --source -s address[/mask][...] source specification
[!] --destination -d address[/mask][...] destination specification
[!] --in-interface -i input name[+] network interface name ([+] for wildcard)
--jump -j target target for rule (may load target extension)
--goto -g chain jump to chain with no return
--match -m match extended match (may load extension)
--numeric -n numeric output of addresses and ports
[!] --out-interface -o output name[+] network interface name ([+] for wildcard)
--table -t table table to manipulate (default: `filter')
--verbose -v verbose mode
--line-numbers print line numbers when listing
--exact -x expand numbers (display exact values)
[!] --fragment -f match second or further fragments only
--modprobe=<command> try to insert modules using this command
--set-counters PKTS BYTES set the counter during insert/append
[!] --version -V print package version.
Deleted line 398:
December 08, 2012, at 08:19 AM by 101.62.92.106 -
Changed lines 66-70 from:
!!Search & Install using yum
----

!!!root@fedora ~> yum search dmidecode
to:
!!USB Devices - lsusb - list USB devices:
Changed lines 69-70 from:
dmidecode.i686 : Tool to analyse BIOS DMI data
python-dmidecode
.i686 : Python module to access DMI data
to:
root@fedora ~> lsusb -tv
/: Bus 01
.Port 1: Dev 1, Class=root_hub, Driver=uhci_hcd/2p, 12M
|__ Port 1: Dev 7, If 0, Class=vend., Driver=option, 12M
|__ Port 1: Dev 7, If 1, Class=vend., Driver=option, 12M
|__ Port 1: Dev 7, If 2, Class=vend., Driver=option, 12M
|__ Port 1: Dev 7, If 3, Class=vend., Driver=option, 12M
|__ Port 1: Dev 7, If 4, Class=vend., Driver=option, 12M
|__ Port 1: Dev 7, If 5, Class=stor., Driver=usb-storage, 12M
Changed line 80 from:
!!!root@fedora ~> yum -y install dmidecode
to:
!!!Use chkconfig to configure the programs that will be started at boot in a runlevel.
Changed lines 82-85 from:
Resolving Dependencies
--> Running transaction check
---> Package dmidecode.i686 1:2.11-8.fc17 will be installed
Installed: dmidecode.i686 Complete!
to:

# chkconfig
--list # List all init scripts
# chkconfig --list sshd # Report the status of sshd
# chkconfig sshd --level 35 on # Configure sshd for levels 3 and 5
# chkconfig sshd off # Disable sshd for all runlevels
Changed lines 90-91 from:
!!!Usage: yum [options] COMMAND
to:
!!!Network
----

!!!ethtool - query or control network driver and hardware settings
Changed lines 96-120 from:
List of Commands:

check
Check for problems in the rpmdb
check-update
Check for available package updates
clean
Remove cached data
deplist
List a package's dependencies
distribution
-synchronization Synchronize installed packages to the latest available versions
downgrade
downgrade a package
erase
Remove a package or packages from your system
groups Display, or use, the groups information
help
Display a helpful usage message
history Display, or use, the transaction history
info Display details about a package or group of packages
install Install a package or packages on your system
list List a package or groups of packages
load-transaction load a saved transaction from filename
makecache Generate the metadata cache
provides Find what package provides the given value
reinstall reinstall a package
repolist Display the configured software repositories
search Search package details for the given string
shell Run an interactive yum shell
update Update a package or packages on your system
upgrade Update packages taking obsoletes into account
version Display a version for the machine and/or available repos.
to:
root@fedora /opt> ethtool em1
Settings for em1:
Supported ports: [ TP MII ]
Supported link modes: 10baseT/Half 10baseT/Full
100baseT/Half 100baseT/Full
Supported pause frame use: No
Supports auto
-negotiation: Yes
Advertised link modes: 10baseT/Half 10baseT/Full
100baseT/Half 100baseT/Full
Advertised pause frame use: Symmetric
Advertised auto-negotiation: Yes
Speed: 10Mb/s
Duplex: Half
Port: MII
PHYAD: 24
Transceiver: internal
Auto-negotiation: on
Supports Wake-on: g
Wake-on: d
Current message level: 0x00000001 (1)
drv
Link detected: no
root@fedora /opt>
Changed lines 121-122 from:
!!!dmidecode is a tool for dumping a computer's DMI (some say SMBIOS)
to:
!!! ip - show / manipulate routing, devices, policy routing and tunnels
!!!root@fedora /opt> ip link show
Changed lines 124-127 from:
root@fedora ~> dmidecode |grep -i Vendor
Vendor: Dell Computer Corporation
root@fedora ~>
to:
1: lo: <LOOPBACK,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 16436 qdisc noqueue state UNKNOWN mode DEFAULT
link/loopback 00:00:00:00:00:00 brd 00:00:00:00:00:00
2: em1: <NO-CARRIER,BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast state
DOWN mode DEFAULT qlen 1000
link/ether 00:08:74:22:5c:61 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
8: ppp0: <POINTOPOINT,MULTICAST,NOARP,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc
pfifo_fast state UNKNOWN mode DEFAULT qlen 3 link/ppp
root@fedora /opt>
Changed lines 134-135 from:
!!USB Devices - lsusb - list USB devices:
to:
!!!netstat Print network connections, routing tables, interface statistics,
masquerade connections, and multicast memberships
Changed lines 138-146 from:
root@fedora ~> lsusb -tv
/:
Bus 01.Port 1: Dev 1, Class=root_hub, Driver=uhci_hcd/2p, 12M
|__ Port 1: Dev 7, If 0, Class=vend., Driver=option, 12M
|__ Port 1: Dev 7, If 1, Class=vend., Driver=option, 12M
|__ Port 1: Dev 7, If 2, Class=vend., Driver=option, 12M
|__ Port 1: Dev 7, If 3, Class=vend., Driver=option, 12M
|__ Port 1: Dev 7, If 4, Class=vend., Driver=option, 12M
|__ Port 1: Dev 7, If 5, Class=stor., Driver=usb-storage, 12M
to:
netstat -h
usage: netstat [-vWeenNcCF] [<Af>] -r
netstat {-V|--version|-h|--help}
netstat [-vWnNcaeol] [<Socket> ...]
netstat { [-vWeenNac] -I[<Iface>] | [-veenNac] -i | [-cnNe] -M | -s [-6tuw] } [delay]

-r, --route display routing table
-I, --interfaces=<Iface> display interface table for <Iface>
-i, --interfaces display interface table
-g, --groups display multicast group memberships
-s, --statistics display networking statistics (like SNMP)
-M, --masquerade display masqueraded connections

-v, --verbose be verbose
-W, --wide don't truncate IP addresses
-n, --numeric don't resolve names
--numeric-hosts don't resolve host names
--numeric-ports don't resolve port names
--numeric-users don't resolve user names
-N, --symbolic resolve hardware names
-e, --extend display other/more information
-p, --programs display PID/Program name for sockets
-c, --continuous continuous listing

-l, --listening display listening server sockets
-a, --all, --listening display all sockets (default: connected)
-o, --timers display timers
-F, --fib display Forwarding Information Base (default)
-C, --cache display routing cache instead of FIB
-Z, --context display SELinux security context for sockets
Changed lines 169-170 from:
!!!Use chkconfig to configure the programs that will be started at boot in a runlevel.
to:
!!!netstat -rn
Changed lines 172-177 from:

# chkconfig
--list # List all init scripts
# chkconfig --list sshd
# Report the status of sshd
# chkconfig sshd --level 35 on
# Configure sshd for levels 3 and 5
# chkconfig sshd off
# Disable sshd for all runlevels
to:
root@fedora ~> netstat -rn
Kernel IP routing table
Destination
Gateway Genmask Flags MSS Window irtt Iface
0.0.0.0
0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 U 0 0 0 ppp0
169.204.0.0
0.0.0.0 255.255.0.0 U 0 0 0 em1
192.168.56.0 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.0 U 0 0 0 em1
192.168.141.145 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.255 UH 0 0 0 ppp0
root@fedora ~>
Changed lines 182-186 from:
!!!Network
----

!!!ethtool - query or control network driver and hardware settings
to:
!!!route - show / manipulate the IP routing table
Changed lines 185-207 from:
root@fedora /opt> ethtool em1
Settings for em1:
Supported ports: [ TP MII ]
Supported link modes:
10baseT/Half 10baseT/Full
100baseT/Half 100baseT/Full
Supported pause frame use: No
Supports auto-negotiation: Yes
Advertised link modes:
10baseT/Half 10baseT/Full
100baseT/Half 100baseT/Full
Advertised pause frame use: Symmetric
Advertised auto-negotiation: Yes
Speed: 10Mb/s
Duplex: Half
Port: MII
PHYAD: 24
Transceiver: internal
Auto-negotiation: on
Supports Wake-on: g
Wake-on: d
Current message level: 0x00000001 (1)
drv
Link detected: no
root@fedora /opt>
to:
root@fedora ~> route -n
Kernel IP routing table
Destination
Gateway Genmask Flags Metric Ref Use Iface
0.0.0.0
0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 U 0 0 0 ppp0
169.254.0.0 0.0.0.0 255.255.0.0
U 1002 0 0 em1
192.168.51.0 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.0 U 0 0 0 em1
120.124.141.145 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.255 UH 0 0 0 ppp0
root@fedora ~
>
Changed lines 195-196 from:
!!! ip - show / manipulate routing, devices, policy routing and tunnels
!!!root@fedora /opt> ip link show
to:
!!EXAMPLES

!!!route add -net 127.0.0.0 netmask 255.0.0.0 dev lo
adds the normal loopback entry, using netmask 255.0.0.0 and associated with the "lo" device
(assuming this device was previously set up correctly with ifconfig(8)).

!!!route add -net 192.56.76.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 dev eth0
adds a route to the local network 192.56.76.x via "eth0". The word "dev" can be omitted here.

!!!route del default
deletes the current default route, which is labeled "default" or 0.0.0.0 in the destination
field of the current routing table.

!!!route add default gw mango-gw
adds a default route (which will be used if no other route matches).
All packets using this route will be gatewayed through "mango-gw".
The device which will actually be used for that route depends on how
we can reach "mango-gw" - the static route to "mango-gw" will have to be set up before.

!!!route add ipx4 sl0
Adds the route to the "ipx4" host via the SLIP interface (assuming that "ipx4" is the SLIP host).

!!!route add -net 192.57.66.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw ipx4
This command adds the net "192.57.66.x" to be gatewayed through the former route to the SLIP interface.

!!!route add -net 224.0.0.0 netmask 240.0.0.0 dev eth0
This is an obscure one documented so people know how to do it. This sets all of the class D (multicast) IP routes to go via "eth0". This is the correct normal configuration line with a multicasting kernel.

!!!route add -net 10.0.0.0 netmask 255.0.0.0 reject
This installs a rejecting route for the private network "10.x.x.x."
Changed lines 228-235 from:
1: lo: <LOOPBACK,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 16436 qdisc noqueue state UNKNOWN mode DEFAULT
link/loopback 00:00:00:00:00:00 brd 00:00:00:00:00:00
2: em1: <NO-CARRIER,BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast state
DOWN mode DEFAULT qlen 1000
link/ether 00:08:74:22:5c:61 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
8: ppp0: <POINTOPOINT,MULTICAST,NOARP,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc
pfifo_fast state UNKNOWN mode DEFAULT qlen 3 link/ppp
root@fedora /opt>
to:
# route add -net 192.168.50.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.56.1
# ip route add 192.168.56.0/24 via 192.168.56.1
# same as above with ip route
# route add -net 192.168.56.1 netmask 255.255.255.0 dev eth0
# route add default gw 192.168.56.1
Changed lines 234-237 from:
!!!netstat Print network connections, routing tables, interface statistics,
masquerade connections, and multicast memberships
to:
----

!!Search & Install using yum
----

!!!root@fedora ~> yum search dmidecode
Changed lines 241-269 from:
netstat -h
usage: netstat [-vWeenNcCF] [<Af>] -r netstat {-V|--version|-h|--help}
netstat [-vWnNcaeol] [<Socket> ...]
netstat { [-vWeenNac] -I[<Iface>] | [-veenNac] -i | [-cnNe] -M | -s [-6tuw] } [delay]

-r, --route display routing table
-I, --interfaces=<Iface> display interface table for <Iface>
-i, --interfaces display interface table
-g, --groups display multicast group memberships
-s, --statistics display networking statistics (like SNMP)
-M, --masquerade display masqueraded connections

-v, --verbose be verbose
-W, --wide don't truncate IP addresses
-n, --numeric don't resolve names
--numeric-hosts don't resolve host names
--numeric-ports don't resolve port names
--numeric-users don't resolve user names
-N, --symbolic resolve hardware names
-e, --extend display other/more information
-p, --programs display PID/Program name for sockets
-c, --continuous continuous listing

-l, --listening display listening server sockets
-a, --all, --listening display all sockets (default: connected)
-o, --timers display timers
-F, --fib display Forwarding Information Base (default)
-C, --cache display routing cache instead of FIB
-Z, --context display SELinux security context for sockets
to:
dmidecode.i686 : Tool to analyse BIOS DMI data
python-dmidecode.i686 : Python module to access DMI data
Changed lines 245-246 from:
!!!netstat -rn
to:
!!!root@fedora ~> yum -y install dmidecode
Changed lines 247-254 from:
root@fedora ~> netstat -rn
Kernel IP routing table
Destination Gateway Genmask Flags MSS Window irtt Iface
0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 U 0 0 0 ppp0
169.204.0.0 0.0.0.0 255.255.0.0 U 0 0 0 em1
192.168.56.0 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.0 U 0 0 0 em1
192.168.141.145 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.255 UH 0 0 0 ppp0
root@fedora ~>
to:
Resolving Dependencies
--
> Running transaction check
---> Package dmidecode.i686 1:2.11-8.fc17 will be installed
Installed: dmidecode.i686 Complete!
Changed lines 253-254 from:
!!!route - show / manipulate the IP routing table
to:
!!!Usage: yum [options] COMMAND
Changed lines 256-263 from:
root@fedora ~> route -n
Kernel IP routing table
Destination
Gateway Genmask Flags Metric Ref Use Iface
0.0.0.0
0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 U 0 0 0 ppp0
169.254.0.0
0.0.0.0 255.255.0.0 U 1002 0 0 em1
192.168.51.0 0.0.0.0
255.255.255.0 U 0 0 0 em1
120.124.141.145 0.0.0.0
255.255.255.255 UH 0 0 0 ppp0
root@fedora ~>
to:
List of Commands:

check
Check for problems in the rpmdb
check-update
Check for available package updates
clean
Remove cached data
deplist
List a package's dependencies
distribution-synchronization Synchronize installed packages to the latest available versions
downgrade
downgrade a package
erase
Remove a package or packages from your system
groups
Display, or use, the groups information
help
Display a helpful usage message
history
Display, or use, the transaction history
info
Display details about a package or group of packages
install
Install a package or packages on your system
list
List a package or groups of packages
load-transaction load a saved transaction from filename
makecache
Generate the metadata cache
provides Find what package provides the given value
reinstall reinstall a package
repolist Display the configured software repositories
search Search package details for the given string
shell Run an interactive yum shell
update Update a package or packages on your system
upgrade Update packages taking obsoletes into account
version Display a version for the machine and/or available repos.
Changed lines 283-314 from:
!!EXAMPLES

!!!route add -net 127.0.0.0 netmask 255.0.0.0 dev lo
adds the normal loopback entry, using netmask 255.0.0.0 and associated with the "lo" device
(assuming this device was previously set up correctly with ifconfig(8)).

!!!route add -net 192.56.76.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 dev eth0
adds a route to the local network 192.56.76.x via "eth0". The word "dev" can be omitted here.

!!!route del default
deletes the current default route, which is labeled "default" or 0.0.0.0 in the destination
field of the current routing table.

!!!route add default gw mango-gw
adds a default route (which will be used if no other route matches).
All packets using this route will be gatewayed through "mango-gw".
The device which will actually be used for that route depends on how
we can reach "mango-gw" - the static route to "mango-gw" will have to be set up before.

!!!route add ipx4 sl0
Adds the route to the "ipx4" host via the SLIP interface (assuming that "ipx4" is the SLIP host).

!!!route add -net 192.57.66.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw ipx4
This command adds the net "192.57.66.x" to be gatewayed through the former route to the SLIP interface.

!!!route add -net 224.0.0.0 netmask 240.0.0.0 dev eth0
This is an obscure one documented so people know how to do it. This sets all of the class D (multicast) IP routes to go via "eth0". This is the correct normal configuration line with a multicasting kernel.

!!!route add -net 10.0.0.0 netmask 255.0.0.0 reject
This installs a rejecting route for the private network "10.x.x.x."
to:

!!!dmidecode is a tool for dumping a computer's DMI (some say SMBIOS)
Changed lines 286-290 from:
# route add -net 192.168.50.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.56.1
# ip route add 192.168.56.0/24 via 192.168.56.1 # same as above with ip route
# route add -net 192.168.56.1 netmask 255.255.255.0 dev eth0
# route add default gw 192.168.56.1
to:
root@fedora ~> dmidecode |grep -i Vendor
Vendor: Dell Computer Corporation
root@fedora ~>
Added line 291:
December 08, 2012, at 08:16 AM by 101.62.92.106 -
Added lines 24-25:

!!!root@fedora ~> uptime
Deleted line 26:
root@fedora ~> uptime
Changed lines 28-30 from:
root@fedora ~> hostname
to:
@]

!!!root@
fedora ~> hostname
[@
Changed lines 33-35 from:
root@fedora ~> hostname -i
to:
@]

!!!root@
fedora ~> hostname -i
[@
Changed lines 38-40 from:
root@fedora ~> hostname -d
to:
@]

!!!root@
fedora ~> hostname -d
[@
Changed lines 43-45 from:
--
root
@fedora ~> last reboot |head
to:
@]

!!!root@
fedora ~> last reboot |head
[@
Changed lines 50-52 from:
--
root
@fedora ~> dmesg |tail
to:
@]

!!!root@
fedora ~> dmesg |tail
[@
Deleted lines 55-62:
--
root@fedora ~> cat /proc/meminfo

root@fedora ~> cat /proc/cmdline
BOOT_IMAGE=/vmlinuz-3.3.4-5.fc17.i686 root=/dev/mapper/vg-lv_root ro rd.md=0
rd.dm=0 KEYTABLE=us SYSFONT=True rd.lvm.lv=vg/lv_root rd.luks=0
rd.lvm.lv=vg/lv_swap LANG=en_US.UTF-8 rhgb quiet
--
Changed lines 58-59 from:
!!Search & Install using yum
to:
!!!root@fedora ~> cat /proc/meminfo

!!!root@fedora ~> cat /proc/cmdline
Changed lines 62-65 from:
root@fedora ~> yum search dmidecode

dmidecode.i686 : Tool to analyse BIOS DMI data
python-dmidecode
.i686 : Python module to access DMI data
to:
BOOT_IMAGE=/vmlinuz-3.3.4-5.fc17.i686 root=/dev/mapper/vg-lv_root ro rd.md=0
rd.dm=0 KEYTABLE=us SYSFONT=True rd.lvm.lv=vg/lv_root rd.luks=0
rd
.lvm.lv=vg/lv_swap LANG=en_US.UTF-8 rhgb quiet
Changed lines 67-70 from:
!!!root@fedora ~> yum -y install dmidecode
to:
!!Search & Install using yum
----

!!!root@fedora ~> yum search
dmidecode
Added lines 72-77:
dmidecode.i686 : Tool to analyse BIOS DMI data
python-dmidecode.i686 : Python module to access DMI data
@]

!!!root@fedora ~> yum -y install dmidecode
[@
Deleted line 81:
Changed lines 84-85 from:
!!!dmidecode is a tool for dumping a computer's DMI (some say SMBIOS)
to:
!!!Usage: yum [options] COMMAND
Changed lines 87-90 from:
root@fedora ~> dmidecode |grep -i Vendor
Vendor: Dell Computer Corporation
root@fedora ~>
to:
List of Commands:

check Check for problems in the rpmdb
check-update Check for available package updates
clean Remove cached data
deplist List a package's dependencies
distribution-synchronization Synchronize installed packages to the latest available versions
downgrade downgrade a package
erase Remove a package or packages from your system
groups Display, or use, the groups information
help Display a helpful usage message
history Display, or use, the transaction history
info Display details about a package or group of packages
install Install a package or packages on your system
list List a package or groups of packages
load-transaction load a saved transaction from filename
makecache Generate the metadata cache
provides Find what package provides the given value
reinstall reinstall a package
repolist Display the configured software repositories
search Search package details for the given string
shell Run an interactive yum shell
update Update a package or packages on your system
upgrade Update packages taking obsoletes into account
version Display a version for the machine and/or available repos.
Changed lines 114-115 from:
!!USB Devices - lsusb - list USB devices:
to:
!!!dmidecode is a tool for dumping a computer's DMI (some say SMBIOS)
Added lines 117-125:
root@fedora ~> dmidecode |grep -i Vendor
Vendor: Dell Computer Corporation
root@fedora ~>

@]

!!USB Devices - lsusb - list USB devices:

[@
Changed lines 134-143 from:
root@fedora ~>


Use chkconfig to configure the programs that will be started at boot in a runlevel.

# chkconfig --list # List all init scripts
# chkconfig --list sshd # Report the status of sshd
# chkconfig sshd --level 35 on # Configure sshd for levels 3 and 5
# chkconfig sshd off # Disable sshd for all runlevels
to:
Changed lines 137-141 from:
!!!Network
----

!!!ethtool - query or control network driver and hardware settings
to:
!!!Use chkconfig to configure the programs that will be started at boot in a runlevel.
Added lines 139-152:

# chkconfig --list # List all init scripts
# chkconfig --list sshd # Report the status of sshd
# chkconfig sshd --level 35 on # Configure sshd for levels 3 and 5
# chkconfig sshd off # Disable sshd for all runlevels

@]

!!!Network
----

!!!ethtool - query or control network driver and hardware settings

[@
Added line 179:
!!!root@fedora /opt> ip link show
Deleted line 180:
root@fedora /opt> ip link show
Changed lines 183-184 from:
2: em1: <NO-CARRIER,BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast state DOWN mode DEFAULT qlen 1000
to:
2: em1: <NO-CARRIER,BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast state
DOWN mode DEFAULT qlen 1000
Changed lines 186-187 from:
8: ppp0: <POINTOPOINT,MULTICAST,NOARP,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast state UNKNOWN mode DEFAULT qlen 3
link/ppp
to:
8: ppp0: <POINTOPOINT,MULTICAST,NOARP,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc
pfifo_fast state UNKNOWN mode DEFAULT qlen 3 link/ppp
December 08, 2012, at 08:10 AM by 101.62.92.106 -
Added lines 6-7:

!!!root@fedora ~> uname -a
Deleted lines 8-9:
root@fedora ~> uname -a
Changed lines 11-14 from:
--
root
@fedora ~> lsb_release -a
to:
@]

!!!root@
fedora ~> lsb_release -a
[@
Changed lines 22-24 from:
--
to:
@]

[@
Deleted line 25:
Changed line 27 from:
--
to:
Changed lines 67-69 from:

root
@fedora ~> yum -y install dmidecode
to:
@]

!!!root@
fedora ~> yum -y install dmidecode
[@
December 08, 2012, at 08:08 AM by 101.62.92.106 -
Changed lines 4-5 from:
!!Checking for running kernel and system information
to:
!!!Checking for running kernel and system
----
Changed lines 108-109 from:
to:
----
Added lines 183-248:
@]

!!!netstat -rn

[@
root@fedora ~> netstat -rn
Kernel IP routing table
Destination Gateway Genmask Flags MSS Window irtt Iface
0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 U 0 0 0 ppp0
169.204.0.0 0.0.0.0 255.255.0.0 U 0 0 0 em1
192.168.56.0 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.0 U 0 0 0 em1
192.168.141.145 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.255 UH 0 0 0 ppp0
root@fedora ~>
@]

!!!route - show / manipulate the IP routing table

[@
root@fedora ~> route -n
Kernel IP routing table
Destination Gateway Genmask Flags Metric Ref Use Iface
0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 U 0 0 0 ppp0
169.254.0.0 0.0.0.0 255.255.0.0 U 1002 0 0 em1
192.168.51.0 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.0 U 0 0 0 em1
120.124.141.145 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.255 UH 0 0 0 ppp0
root@fedora ~>
@]

!!EXAMPLES

!!!route add -net 127.0.0.0 netmask 255.0.0.0 dev lo
adds the normal loopback entry, using netmask 255.0.0.0 and associated with the "lo" device
(assuming this device was previously set up correctly with ifconfig(8)).

!!!route add -net 192.56.76.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 dev eth0
adds a route to the local network 192.56.76.x via "eth0". The word "dev" can be omitted here.

!!!route del default
deletes the current default route, which is labeled "default" or 0.0.0.0 in the destination
field of the current routing table.

!!!route add default gw mango-gw
adds a default route (which will be used if no other route matches).
All packets using this route will be gatewayed through "mango-gw".
The device which will actually be used for that route depends on how
we can reach "mango-gw" - the static route to "mango-gw" will have to be set up before.

!!!route add ipx4 sl0
Adds the route to the "ipx4" host via the SLIP interface (assuming that "ipx4" is the SLIP host).

!!!route add -net 192.57.66.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw ipx4
This command adds the net "192.57.66.x" to be gatewayed through the former route to the SLIP interface.

!!!route add -net 224.0.0.0 netmask 240.0.0.0 dev eth0
This is an obscure one documented so people know how to do it. This sets all of the class D (multicast) IP routes to go via "eth0". This is the correct normal configuration line with a multicasting kernel.

!!!route add -net 10.0.0.0 netmask 255.0.0.0 reject
This installs a rejecting route for the private network "10.x.x.x."


[@
# route add -net 192.168.50.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.56.1
# ip route add 192.168.56.0/24 via 192.168.56.1 # same as above with ip route
# route add -net 192.168.56.1 netmask 255.255.255.0 dev eth0
# route add default gw 192.168.56.1
December 08, 2012, at 07:45 AM by 101.62.92.106 -
Added lines 104-180:
@]

!!!Network

!!!ethtool - query or control network driver and hardware settings

[@
root@fedora /opt> ethtool em1
Settings for em1:
Supported ports: [ TP MII ]
Supported link modes: 10baseT/Half 10baseT/Full
100baseT/Half 100baseT/Full
Supported pause frame use: No
Supports auto-negotiation: Yes
Advertised link modes: 10baseT/Half 10baseT/Full
100baseT/Half 100baseT/Full
Advertised pause frame use: Symmetric
Advertised auto-negotiation: Yes
Speed: 10Mb/s
Duplex: Half
Port: MII
PHYAD: 24
Transceiver: internal
Auto-negotiation: on
Supports Wake-on: g
Wake-on: d
Current message level: 0x00000001 (1)
drv
Link detected: no
root@fedora /opt>
@]

!!! ip - show / manipulate routing, devices, policy routing and tunnels
[@
root@fedora /opt> ip link show
1: lo: <LOOPBACK,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 16436 qdisc noqueue state UNKNOWN mode DEFAULT
link/loopback 00:00:00:00:00:00 brd 00:00:00:00:00:00
2: em1: <NO-CARRIER,BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast state DOWN mode DEFAULT qlen 1000
link/ether 00:08:74:22:5c:61 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
8: ppp0: <POINTOPOINT,MULTICAST,NOARP,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast state UNKNOWN mode DEFAULT qlen 3
link/ppp
root@fedora /opt>
@]

!!!netstat Print network connections, routing tables, interface statistics,
masquerade connections, and multicast memberships

[@
netstat -h
usage: netstat [-vWeenNcCF] [<Af>] -r netstat {-V|--version|-h|--help}
netstat [-vWnNcaeol] [<Socket> ...]
netstat { [-vWeenNac] -I[<Iface>] | [-veenNac] -i | [-cnNe] -M | -s [-6tuw] } [delay]

-r, --route display routing table
-I, --interfaces=<Iface> display interface table for <Iface>
-i, --interfaces display interface table
-g, --groups display multicast group memberships
-s, --statistics display networking statistics (like SNMP)
-M, --masquerade display masqueraded connections

-v, --verbose be verbose
-W, --wide don't truncate IP addresses
-n, --numeric don't resolve names
--numeric-hosts don't resolve host names
--numeric-ports don't resolve port names
--numeric-users don't resolve user names
-N, --symbolic resolve hardware names
-e, --extend display other/more information
-p, --programs display PID/Program name for sockets
-c, --continuous continuous listing

-l, --listening display listening server sockets
-a, --all, --listening display all sockets (default: connected)
-o, --timers display timers
-F, --fib display Forwarding Information Base (default)
-C, --cache display routing cache instead of FIB
-Z, --context display SELinux security context for sockets
December 08, 2012, at 07:23 AM by 101.62.92.106 -
Added lines 95-103:


Use chkconfig to configure the programs that will be started at boot in a runlevel.

# chkconfig --list # List all init scripts
# chkconfig --list sshd # Report the status of sshd
# chkconfig sshd --level 35 on # Configure sshd for levels 3 and 5
# chkconfig sshd off # Disable sshd for all runlevels
December 08, 2012, at 06:40 AM by 101.62.92.106 -
Deleted lines 72-76:
--
root@fedora ~> dmidecode |grep -i Vendor
Vendor: Dell Computer Corporation
root@fedora ~>
Changed lines 75-83 from:
!!USB Devices:
to:
!!!dmidecode is a tool for dumping a computer's DMI (some say SMBIOS)
[@
root@fedora ~> dmidecode |grep -i Vendor
Vendor: Dell Computer Corporation
root@fedora ~>

@]

!!USB Devices - lsusb - list USB devices
:
December 08, 2012, at 06:38 AM by 101.62.92.106 -
Added lines 78-91:
@]

!!USB Devices:

[@
root@fedora ~> lsusb -tv
/: Bus 01.Port 1: Dev 1, Class=root_hub, Driver=uhci_hcd/2p, 12M
|__ Port 1: Dev 7, If 0, Class=vend., Driver=option, 12M
|__ Port 1: Dev 7, If 1, Class=vend., Driver=option, 12M
|__ Port 1: Dev 7, If 2, Class=vend., Driver=option, 12M
|__ Port 1: Dev 7, If 3, Class=vend., Driver=option, 12M
|__ Port 1: Dev 7, If 4, Class=vend., Driver=option, 12M
|__ Port 1: Dev 7, If 5, Class=stor., Driver=usb-storage, 12M
root@fedora ~>
December 08, 2012, at 06:35 AM by 101.62.92.106 -
Changed line 10 from:
root@fedora ~>
to:
Deleted line 20:
root@fedora ~>
Deleted line 24:
root@fedora ~>
Added line 33:
Deleted line 36:
root@fedora ~>
Deleted line 54:
root@fedora ~>
Deleted lines 62-71:
Loaded plugins: fastestmirror, langpacks, presto, refresh-packagekit
Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile
* fedora: mirror.nus.edu.sg
* livna: rpm.livna.org
* rpmfusion-free: mirror.cse.iitk.ac.in
* rpmfusion-free-updates: mirror.cse.iitk.ac.in
* rpmfusion-nonfree: mirror.cse.iitk.ac.in
* rpmfusion-nonfree-updates: mirror.cse.iitk.ac.in
* updates: mirror.nus.edu.sg
N/S Matched: dmidecode
Changed lines 66-68 from:
Name and summary matches only, use "search all" for everything.
root@fedora ~>
to:
Deleted lines 67-76:

Loaded plugins: fastestmirror, langpacks, presto, refresh-packagekit
Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile
* fedora: mirror.nus.edu.sg
* livna: rpm.livna.org
* rpmfusion-free: mirror.cse.iitk.ac.in
* rpmfusion-free-updates: mirror.cse.iitk.ac.in
* rpmfusion-nonfree: mirror.cse.iitk.ac.in
* rpmfusion-nonfree-updates: mirror.cse.iitk.ac.in
* updates: mirror.nus.edu.sg
Changed lines 71-90 from:
--> Finished Dependency Resolution

Dependencies Resolved
Installing:
dmidecode i686 1:2.11-8.fc17 fedora 72 k

Transaction Summary
Install 1 Package

Total download size: 72 k
Installed size: 176 k
Downloading Packages:
dmidecode-2.11-8.fc17.i686.rpm
Running Transaction Check
Running Transaction Test
Transaction Test Succeeded
Running Transaction
Installed: dmidecode.i686 2.11-8.fc17

Complete!
root@fedora ~>
to:
Installed: dmidecode.i686 Complete!
December 08, 2012, at 06:31 AM by 101.62.92.106 -
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dmidecode i686 1:2.11-8.fc17 fedora 72 k
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dmidecode i686 1:2.11-8.fc17 fedora 72 k
Deleted line 118:
December 08, 2012, at 06:30 AM by 101.62.92.106 -
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dmidecode i686 1:2.11-8.fc17 fedora 72 k
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dmidecode i686 1:2.11-8.fc17 fedora 72 k
Changed lines 113-115 from:
Installed:
dmidecode.i686 1:2.11-8.fc17
to:
Installed: dmidecode.i686 2.11-8.fc17
Added lines 122-123:

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December 08, 2012, at 06:28 AM by 101.62.92.106 -
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oot@fedora ~> cat /proc/meminfo^C
to:
root@fedora ~> cat /proc/meminfo
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--
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!!Search & Install using yum

[@
root@fedora ~> yum search dmidecode

Loaded plugins: fastestmirror, langpacks, presto, refresh-packagekit
Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile
* fedora: mirror.nus.edu.sg
* livna: rpm.livna.org
* rpmfusion-free: mirror.cse.iitk.ac.in
* rpmfusion-free-updates: mirror.cse.iitk.ac.in
* rpmfusion-nonfree: mirror.cse.iitk.ac.in
* rpmfusion-nonfree-updates: mirror.cse.iitk.ac.in
* updates: mirror.nus.edu.sg
N/S Matched: dmidecode
dmidecode.i686 : Tool to analyse BIOS DMI data
python-dmidecode.i686 : Python module to access DMI data

Name and summary matches only, use "search all" for everything.
root@fedora ~>

root@fedora ~> yum -y install dmidecode

Loaded plugins: fastestmirror, langpacks, presto, refresh-packagekit
Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile
* fedora: mirror.nus.edu.sg
* livna: rpm.livna.org
* rpmfusion-free: mirror.cse.iitk.ac.in
* rpmfusion-free-updates: mirror.cse.iitk.ac.in
* rpmfusion-nonfree: mirror.cse.iitk.ac.in
* rpmfusion-nonfree-updates: mirror.cse.iitk.ac.in
* updates: mirror.nus.edu.sg
Resolving Dependencies
--> Running transaction check
---> Package dmidecode.i686 1:2.11-8.fc17 will be installed
--> Finished Dependency Resolution

Dependencies Resolved
Installing:
dmidecode i686 1:2.11-8.fc17 fedora 72 k

Transaction Summary
Install 1 Package

Total download size: 72 k
Installed size: 176 k
Downloading Packages:
dmidecode-2.11-8.fc17.i686.rpm
Running Transaction Check
Running Transaction Test
Transaction Test Succeeded
Running Transaction
Installed:
dmidecode.i686 1:2.11-8.fc17

Complete!
root@fedora ~>

--
root@fedora ~> dmidecode |grep -i Vendor

Vendor: Dell Computer Corporation
root@fedora ~>
December 08, 2012, at 06:08 AM by 101.62.92.106 -
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BOOT_IMAGE=/vmlinuz-3.3.4-5.fc17.i686 root=/dev/mapper/vg-lv_root ro rd.md=0 rd.dm=0 KEYTABLE=us SYSFONT=True rd.lvm.lv=vg/lv_root rd.luks=0 rd.lvm.lv=vg/lv_swap LANG=en_US.UTF-8 rhgb quiet
to:
BOOT_IMAGE=/vmlinuz-3.3.4-5.fc17.i686 root=/dev/mapper/vg-lv_root ro rd.md=0
rd.dm=0 KEYTABLE=us SYSFONT=True rd.lvm.lv=vg/lv_root rd.luks=0
rd.lvm.lv=vg/lv_swap LANG=en_US.UTF-8 rhgb quiet
December 08, 2012, at 06:06 AM by 101.62.92.106 -
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!!Checking for running kernel and system information
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root@fedora ~> uname -a
Linux fedora.example.com 3.3.4-5.fc17.i686 #1
SMP Mon May 7 17:45:26 UTC 2012 i686 i686 i386 GNU/Linux
root@fedora ~>
--
root@fedora ~> lsb_release -a
LSB Version: :core-4.1-ia32:core-4.1-noarch:cxx-4.1-ia32:cxx-4.1-
noarch:desktop-4.1-ia32:desktop-4.1-noarch:languages-4.1-ia32:
languages-4.1-noarch:printing-4.1-ia32:printing-4.1-noarch
Distributor ID: Fedora
Description: Fedora release 17 (Beefy Miracle)
Release: 17
Codename: BeefyMiracle
root@fedora ~>
--
root@fedora ~> uptime
16:30:53 up 1 day, 3:05, 4 users, load average: 0.39, 0.37, 0.32
root@fedora ~>
--
root@fedora ~> hostname
fedora.example.com
root@fedora ~> hostname -i
127.0.0.1
root@fedora ~> hostname -d
example.com
root@fedora ~>
--
root@fedora ~> last reboot |head
reboot system boot 3.3.4-5.fc17.i68 Fri Dec 7 13:25 - 16:32 (1+03:07)
reboot system boot 3.3.4-5.fc17.i68 Wed Dec 5 14:57 - 16:32 (3+01:35)
reboot system boot 3.3.4-5.fc17.i68 Sat Dec 1 20:52 - 01:33 (04:41)
--
root@fedora ~> dmesg |tail
[87261.920498] sd 0:0:0:0: [sda] Unhandled sense code
[87261.920507] sd 0:0:0:0: [sda] Result: hostbyte=DID_OK driverbyte=DRIVER_SENSE
--
oot@fedora ~> cat /proc/meminfo^C
root@fedora ~> cat /proc/cmdline
BOOT_IMAGE=/vmlinuz-3.3.4-5.fc17.i686 root=/dev/mapper/vg-lv_root ro rd.md=0 rd.dm=0 KEYTABLE=us SYSFONT=True rd.lvm.lv=vg/lv_root rd.luks=0 rd.lvm.lv=vg/lv_swap LANG=en_US.UTF-8 rhgb quiet
root@fedora ~>
December 08, 2012, at 05:57 AM by 101.62.92.106 -
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(:Google1:)
(:Googletxt:)
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(:Googlemm:)
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Page last modified on December 30, 2012, at 09:20 PM